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2005 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Technical Program


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FEBRUARY 13-17 · 2005 TMS ANNUAL MEETING · SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA

AM05 Logo Plenary Presentations

The Role of Technology in the Global Primary Aluminum Industry Today and in the Future

Date: Tuesday, February 15
Time: 8:30 am
Location: Moscone West Convention Center, Room 2000
Traditionally, technology has been regarded as the way to streamline operations, create efficiencies, and raise profits. The requirements of improving productivity and cutting costs are now forcing the aluminum industry to press the limits of technology. Are we now seeing that the economic results of aluminum smelters will be more dependent on cost of raw materials, energy, and labor rather than on superior cell technology? Which technological requirements and achievements are needed to ensure that the Primary Aluminum Industry remains competitive in the coming years? The leaders of the Primary Metals Groups of the world’s largest aluminum producers have been invited to discuss these and related challenges at the 2005 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition.

The presentations will be followed by a panel discussion with the opportunity for the audience to ask questions and provide their comments to the presenters. This is an opportunity that anyone involved with the primary aluminum industry can’t afford to miss.

The following speakers have committed to participate event sponsored by the TMS Light Metals Division, the TMS Aluminum Committee, and the Aluminum Association:

ALUMINUM PLENARY SESSION SPEAKERS
Carroll Gautesen Hale Liu Matvienko Reitan
CYNTHIA CARROLL
President/CEO
Alcan Primary Metal Group
Canada
TRULS GAUTESEN
President
Hydro Aluminium Primary Metal
Norway
WAYNE HALE, SR.
Vice President of Operations
SUAL Holding
Russia
XIANGMIN LIU
Vice President
Aluminum Corporation of China (Chalco)
China
VALERY MATVIENKO
Managing Director, Aluminum Division
Rusal
Russia
BERNT REITAN
Vice President
Alcoa
USA

More Plenary Presentations

PLENARY SPEAKER
Srolovitz
DAVID J. SROLOVITZ
Director
Princeton Materials Institute
USA

From the Computational Thermodynamics and Phase Transformations Symposium: "Anisotropic Grain Boundary Properties" by David J. Srolovitz

Date: Monday, February 14
Time: 8:30 am
Location: Moscone West Convention Center, Room 3005
Grain boundary structure and properties depend on five distinct crystallographic variables: three to describe the relative orientation of one grain with respect to the other and two to describe the boundary plane. The evolution of polycrystalline structures may depend upon the anisotropy in grain boundary mobility, grain boundary free energy/stiffness, efficiency with which the boundary absorbs defects. In this presentation, we focus upon grain boundary properties that are important for quantitative modeling of the evolution of polycrystalline microstructures as a function of these crystallographic parameters (i.e., grain boundary mobility and grain boundary stiffness). We discuss how to determine these properties using molecular dynamics simulations. Finally, we compare predicted grain boundary dynamical properties with experimental measurements to draw some conclusions on what controls the rate at which polycrystalline structures evolve.

PLENARY SPEAKER
Taub
ALAN I. TAUB
Executive Director, R&D
General Motors Corporation
USA

From the 6th Global Innovations SymposiumTrends in Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Transportation Industries: "Automotive Research: Technical Trends and Challenges" by Alan I. Taub

Date: Monday, February 14
Time: 2:00 pm
Location: Moscone West Convention Center, Room 2009
The population of the earth stands above 6.3 billion people today and in another 15 years will approach 7.5 billion. As world population rises, vehicle ownership is also expected to climb dramatically. In order to sustain increasing numbers of vehicles, the automotive industry must address important challenges in several key areas: energy, emissions, safety, congestion, and affordability. This talk will cover General Motors’ current strategies on how to address these challenges, highlighting developments in advanced propulsion, vehicle electronics, lightweight and smart materials, and agile manufacturing. These technologies are key to enable the industry to extend the significant benefits of personal mobility to people around the globe.

PLENARY SPEAKER
Spearot
JAMES A. SPEAROT
Director, Chemical and Environmental Sciences Laboratory
General Motors R&D Center
USA

From the 6th Global Innovations Symposium—Trends in Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Transportation Industries: "The Hydrogen Economy–Materials Challenges and Opportunities" by James A. Spearot

Date: Monday, February 15
Time: 3:45 pm
Location: Moscone West Convention Center, Room 2009
Recent debate in both government and technical forums has focused on the value, the possibility, and the timing of meeting future transportation fuel demands by use of hydrogen generated from renewable sources of primary energy. The justifications for and the criticisms against development of renewable energy supplies and hydrogen-fueled propulsion systems are reviewed, and the technical hurdles to be overcome in creating such a future vision are identified. If the vision of a hydrogen-fueled transportation system is to become reality, significant material inventions and developments will be required. The opportunities for critical materials research programs in the areas of hydrogen generation, fuel cell development, and hydrogen storage are described. The status of General Motors’ progress in development of hydrogen-fueled, fuel cell-powered vehicles is used to demonstrate the potential that a clean, renewable-hydrogen fuel-based transportation system can provide in meeting societal goals.

PLENARY SPEAKER
Artz
EDUARD ARZT
Max-Planck-Institut for Metals Research and Institut fur Metallkunde
University of Stuttgart
Germany

From the Biological Materials Science and Engineering Symposium: "Biological and Artificial Attachment Devices: Lessons for Materials Scientists from Flies and Geckos" by Eduard Arzt

Date: Wednesday, February 16
Time: 9:30 am
Location: Moscone West Convention Center, Room 3009
This talk will describe an interdisciplinary study involving materials scientists, biologists, and physicist aimed at elucidating the correlation between structure and performance of attachment devices in insects, spiders, and geckos. In all of these cases, adhesion is mediated by the interaction of finely-structured contact elements with the different substrates. Local mechanical properties and adhesion forces are measured by nanomechanical test methods and compared with predictions based on theoretical contact mechanics. For example, it has been possible for the first time to measure the adhesion of single gecko spatulae, with dimensions of 200 nm, to selected substrates by atomic force microscopy. Structure, size, and shape of the contact elements are found to play important roles; in particular the principle of "contact splitting" has been identified: finer contact elements (down to submicron level) produce larger contact forces in heavier animals. The actual dimensions of the contact elements follow exactly the theoretical predictions, a relationship that covers 6 orders of magnitude in animal mass from the fruit fly to the gecko! From our findings, important conclusions can be drawn on the optimal design of artificial contact elements. The talk will present first prototype adhesive surfaces produced with this insight and identify their technical limits by introducing "adhesion mechanism maps". These developments have led to the design of artificial micro-attachment systems ("biomimicry") which are potentially useful in micro-technology.

PLENARY SPEAKER
Suresh
SUBRA SURESH
Head, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ford Professor of Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
USA

From the Biological Materials Science and Engineering Symposium: "Single-cell Nanomechanics and Human Disease States" by Subra Suresh

Date: Tuesday, February 15
Time: 9:00 am
Location: Moscone West Convention Center, Room 3009
The mechanical response of living cells and subcellular cytoskeleton can undergo dramatic alterations due to biochemical changes introduced by the progression of human diseases. In this presentation, we provide experimental results on systematic alterations to the elastic properties of human red blood cells parasitized in vitro by Plasmodium falciparum malaria. By recourse to optical tweezers experiments, we extract direct force versus displacement relationships for the cell and examine contributions to cell elasticity from specific proteins transported to the membrane from the parasite. Continuum and molecular-level computational simulations of the deformation of red blood cell are also performed to quantify the nanomechanics of cell response. The mechanical properties of changes to cell deformability from P. falciparum infestation are also compared and contrasted with similar results for the P. vivax parasite. Finally, the similarities and differences in cell elasticity and disease states between malaria and human pancreatic cancer are also examined.

PLENARY SPEAKER
Vincent
JULIAN VINCENT
Chair of Biomimetics, Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Bath
United Kingdom

From the Biological Materials Science and Engineering Symposium: "Mechanical Properties of Biological Materials" by Julian Vincent

Date: Monday, February 14
Time: 8:30 am
Location: Moscone West Convention Center, Room 3009
It seems to me that the mechanical properties of biological materials are of interest to the engineer for 3 main reasons: What characteristics do they have? Why and how? How can we benefit from this information? The most versatile material is probably the cuticle of arthropods, which has to be skeleton, skin, and sensor, providing support, flexibility, sensitivity, protection, waterproofing, absorption, locomotion, etc. In providing this it is impossible to separate structure and material properties. The properties herefore have to be understood at the level of chemical bonding (epitaxy of chitin-protein interactions via silk-like conformations; incorporation of heavy metals), physical chemistry (control of stiffness achieved by control of water content), micro-morphology (fibre orientations; volume fractions), macromorphology (control of buckling by folding stiffeners), and function (wing foldings, mechanisms for drilling holes). The benefit comes from comparing the design philosophy of the arthropod with what we would do given our technical background and experience. These turn out to be very different (there’s only a 10% overlap—by design or coincidence) suggesting that 90% of biological problem-solving remains to be explored and exploited. The last part of the talk will therefore be devoted to techniques of biomimetic data-mining and how to organize biological information in a way which will aid creativity and innovation.


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