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Topic Title: ARTICLE: Pb-free Solders for Flip-Chip Interconnects
Topic Summary: This article reviews the physical metallurgy and mechanical metallurgy of lead-free solders
Created On: 2/12/2007 10:28 AM

 2/12/2007 10:28 AM

Todd Osman

Posts: 219
Joined: 2/2/2007

"This article, the full text of which is provided, reviews the physical metallurgy and mechanical metallurgy of lead-free solders as well as a test procedure for sample preparation and evaluation. A variety of lead-free solder alloys were studied for use as flip-chip interconnects including Sn-3.5Ag, Sn-0.7Cu, Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu, and eutectic Sn-37Pb as a baseline. The reaction behavior and reliability of these solders were determined in a flip-chip configuration using a variety of under-bump metallurgies (TiW/Cu, electrolytic nickel, and electroless Ni-P/Au). The solder microstructure and intermetallic reaction products and kinetics were determined. The Sn-0.7Cu solder has a large grain structure and the Sn-3.5Ag and Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu have a fine lamellar two-phase structure of tin and Ag3Sn. The intermetallic compounds were similar for all the lead-free alloys. On Ni, Ni3Sn4 formed and on copper, Cu6Sn5 Cu3Sn formed. During reflow, the intermetallic growth rate was faster for the lead-free alloys, compared to eutectic tin-lead. In solid-state aging, however, the interfacial intermetallic compounds grew faster with the tin-lead solder than for the lead-free alloys. The reliability tests performed included shear strength and thermomechanical fatigue. The lower strength Sn-0.7Cu alloy also had the best thermomechanical fatigue behavior. Failures occurred near the solder/intermetallic interface for all the alloys except Sn-0.7Cu, which deformed by grain sliding and failed in the center of the joint. Based on this study, the optimal solder alloy for flip-chip applications is identified as eutectic Sn-0.7Cu."

LAST UPDATE: 2/12/2007

SOURCE: Frear, D.R., J.W. Jang, J.K. Lin, and C. Zhang. "Pb-free Solders for Flip-Chip Interconnects." JOM 53(6) (2001): 28-32.

LINK: Pb-free Solders for Flip-Chip Interconnects

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