Neutron and X-Rays: Tutorial on Sources, Instrumentation, and Scattering
Part I: Neutrons and X-rays - Sources, Instrumentation, and Scattering, by Rozaliya Barabash and Klaus-Dieter Liss.
Part II: Diffraction from nanostructured materials, by Luca Gelisio and Paolo Scardi
This two part tutorial will review neutrons and X-rays, including sources, instrumentation, theories of scattering and diffraction, concept of reciprocal space, Ewald construction, dynamic and kinematic theory, limit to small crystals, nanocrystals, lattice gradients. It will explain some fundamentals of line profile analysis, with basic facts on nanoparticles - their shapes and most typical properties - restricting the attention to the simplest case of metal systems. The state-of-the-art diffraction analysis of defects will be introduced in the tutorial.
How and why nanocrystals produce broad diffraction profiles, and a quick introduction to the Scherrer equation - where it comes from - will also be covered. In addition, the differences between the two basic paradigms used to deal with nanocrystalline materials in powder diffraction - in Reciprocal Space (traditional approach) and in Direct Space (according to the Debye scattering equation) - will be discussed.
Details of how to build a credible model of a nanocrystal will be considered, as well as the importance of using an atomistic point of view to assess, e.g., by Molecular Dynamics simulations, some crystal properties. Examples and possibilities of a new software implementing the Direct Space approach will conclude the tutorial.