Additive Manufacturing Committee

Technical Programming

2018 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Additive Manufacturing Joint Keynote Session: Organized by David Bourell; John Carpenter

2018 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Additive Manufacturing of Metals: Establishing Location Specific, Processing-Microstructure-Property-Relationships III: Organized by Eric Lass; Mark Stoudt; Judy Schneider; Lee Semiatin; Behrang Poorganji; Clay Houser

Advances in additive manufacturing (AM) technology have created the ability to design and construct components with geometries and properties that cannot be achieved through traditional solidification and deformation processes. This ability has promoted multiple new design strategies whose success relies on close integration of engineering and materials science. An additional attractive aspect of additive processing is the ability to custom design specific properties within the component by layering, thereby promoting different microstructures or compositions (e.g., functionally-graded materials). However, the repetitive rapid solidification that occurs during AM also creates microstructures that deviate significantly from those observed in wrought materials with the same nominal composition. The result is a segregated microstructure with significant variations in local composition/phases, and, in some cases, life-limiting defects that are typically absent in wrought alloys. Most of the AM research currently focuses on refining the build process and on minimizing the residual stresses generated during the build. Consequently, there is far less emphasis on post-build heat treatments that homogenize the as-built microstructures and promote similar properties to wrought alloys. The main objective of this symposium is to develop a better understanding of the input-material requirements, process capabilities, and the resultant effects on finished product microstructure, texture, and properties. Research that elucidates the process-structure-property-performance relationships resulting from rapid solidification and transient phase transformations is essential. Information regarding the influence of inherent defects on the performance of AM-produced components is also greatly needed. Abstracts are requested that relate transient phenomena, recrystallization, transformation, and rapid solidification to additive manufacturing and its influence on phases, microstructure, and properties. Technical sessions emphasizing the following specific topics are planned: • Microstructure evolution in aluminum alloys, stainless steels and aerospace alloys (e.g., Ti, Ni alloys) • Texture measurements and control in AM parts • Defects and their effect on post-build (service) properties • Residual stress evolution and control • Novel applications, complex geometries fabricated via AM • Modeling of AM processes (including liquid and solid-state phase transformation behavior) • Emerging AM processes

2018 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Additive Manufacturing of Metals: Fatigue and Fracture: Organized by Nikolas Hrabe; Steve Daniewicz; Nima Shamsaei; Mohsen Seifi; John Lewandowski

The current understanding of fatigue and fracture behavior of additive manufacturing metals is limited and must be expanded before widespread use in fatigue and fracture critical applications can be fully realized. It is the purpose of this symposium to move toward that expanded understanding by providing a forum to present research results from investigations into fatigue and fracture behavior of additive manufacturing of metals. Topics include: • Processing-structure-properties-performance investigations (more detail below) • Applicability of existing fatigue and fracture test methods to AM materials • Development of new fatigue and fracture test methods for AM materials (e.g. small-scale testing) • Predictive Design Tools (e.g. critical flaw size measurements) • Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques for AM as they relate to Fatigue and Fracture • Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) as it relates to Fatigue and Fracture • Material and/or Part Qualification as they relate to Fatigue and Fracture To further specify the scope of the processing-structure-property-performance investigations, processing includes machine settings (e.g. layer thickness), melt parameters (e.g. energy density), post-processing (e.g. heat treatment, surface treatment), and feedstock variables (e.g. flowability, spreadability, particle size distribution) that can directly impact fatigue and fracture performance of parts. Structure includes crystallographic microstructure (e.g. texture), internal defects (e.g. pores, inclusions), external defects (e.g. surface roughness), residual stress, and chemistry. Properties include all fatigue and fracture properties (e.g. high-cycle fatigue, low-cycle fatigue, linear elastic fracture toughness (KIc), elastic-plastic fracture toughness (J-int), fatigue crack growth rate, and impact toughness (Charpy)). Performance includes any end-product testing.

2018 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Additive Manufacturing: Building the Pathway towards Process and Material Qualification: Organized by John Carpenter; Allison Beese; David Bourell; Christian Leinenbach; James Sears; Christopher Tuck

This symposium will provide a forum for all veins of additive manufacturing to present their latest results in developing methodology for science-based or practice-based material and process qualification. Sessions will be included that seek to develop processing-microstructure-property- performance relationships in metals and non-metals alike. Experimental, modeling, and combined experimental/modeling approaches are welcome. Background and Rationale: Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. A variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. To increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. This symposium will serve as a venue for the international AM community - including government, academia, and industry - to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. This will be accomplished through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes to provide insight and understanding of the nature of the final product and the evolution of microstructure resulting in final part properties and performance. Materials of interest include but are not limited to: - Homogeneous materials: polymers, ceramics, and metals - Heterogeneous materials: foams, polymeric matrix, metallic matrix, ceramic matrix, functionally graded Areas of interest include, but are not limited to: - Fabrication: * Machines: emerging technologies and advancing current capabilities * Processing: feedstock material (including powder, wire, and filament), process and process monitoring (both freeform and direct write), build parameters, repair parameters, post processing (e.g., heat treatment) * Specimen design: net-shaped parts; parts machined to shape based on scaling; as built laboratory test specimens/coupons; specimens/coupons machined from larger builds - Developing constitutive relationships: coupling microstructure measurements and experimental stress analysis to characterize mechanical behavior/materials properties targeting performance - Closing the feedback loop: microstructure measurements feedback to fabrication; performance (mechanical behavior, materials properties, and/or functional) feedback to fabrication

2018 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Advances in Additive Manufacturing of Titanium and Titanium Based Alloys: Organized by Peter Collins; Leon Prentice; Andrew Baker; Craig Brice

Owing to their attractive balance of properties, use in demanding applications, and cost, titanium alloys are candidates for additive manufacturing. Indeed, many of the additive manufacturing research and development efforts underway include exploring the composition, processing, structure, property relationships for titanium based alloys. This symposium will integrate invited and contributed talks on the subject of advances in additive manufacturing of titanium and titanium based alloys. The symposium aims to include the following: • Experimental and Computational Approaches for establishing Process-Structure-Property Relationships • Advances in Processing, including process control strategies, new sensor technologies, and thermal management • Microstructural quantification strategies for additively manufactured components • Advanced design concepts, including (for example) graded structures and topologically optimized structures • Experimental and computational investigations of beam-melt pool physics and models for the beam-molten pool-feed stock interactions, including Multiphysics approaches to melting, solidification, vaporization, heat and material transport, and particle attachment • Application of advanced characterization techniques to quantify the material state at multiple length-scales, including component level testing • Advances in non-thermal Titanium additive processes • Post-processing improvements for mechanical, microstructure, and surface properties • Data analytic approaches • Qualification approaches • Investigations of a wide variety of titanium-based alloys, ranging from the α, α+β, and β-alloys to titanium aluminides

2018 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Application of Solidification Fundamentals to Challenges in Metal Additive Manufacturing: Organized by Alex Plotkowski; Kevin Chaput; Lang Yuan

Additive manufacturing is a disruptive technology, offering increased part complexity, short lead times, and opportunities for local microstructure control. Microstructure and defect development in AM processes is influenced by the solidification and melt pool dynamics, but currently the application of fundamental solidification theories to AM process conditions has not been fully explored. Furthermore, increased demand for customized material properties and localized microstructure control will inevitably require a detailed understanding of solidification in these processes. The goal of this symposium is to highlight research in metal additive manufacturing that applies fundamental solidification theory to understand and solve contemporary processing challenges. This symposium will inform the solidification community about the unique characteristics of AM and guide the AM community to recognize the parallels that exist in the welding and solidification literature. Both experimental and modeling submissions are encouraged, especially in which modeling or theory is connected to experimental results or in-situ characterization to rationalize process challenges and propose novel solutions. The symposium will consist of 4 total sessions.

2018 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Design for Mechanical Behavior of Architectured Materials via Topology Optimization: Organized by Natasha Vermaak; Andrew Gaynor

The architectured strategy for designing materials and structures introduces a scale for materials organization between the microstructure and the macroscopic shape. In this “meso-scale” regime, spatial heterogeneity is prescribed through arranging combinations of materials, or of materials and space, in configurations and with connectivities or topologies that target enhanced mechanical performance. Topology optimization offers a mathematical framework to determine the most efficient material layout for prescribed constraints and loading conditions, and often leads to significant light-weighting at the structural scale. Topology optimization also offers a framework for accessing unexplored and previously unachievable areas of material-property space. There is enormous potential to design meso-scale materials, in two and three dimensions, with controlled microarchitecture, topology, and new mechanical and multiphysics properties. For example, design approaches may include lattice structures or repeating unit cell homogenization. This symposium will feature leading strategies for using various topology optimization techniques in the design of the mechanical behavior of architectured materials. Potential topics of interest include: * Multi-objective and/or multiphysics optimization targeting extremal mechanical properties. * Optimization considering process parameter relations to architected material design. * Multi-scale design of hierarchical materials. * Optimization of functionally graded materials * Optimization under material and processing uncertainty

2018 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Integrative Materials Design III: Performance and Sustainability: Organized by Diana A. Lados; Brad Boyce; Corbett Battaile; Anastasios Gavras

The challenges in modern materials design revolve around the successful integration of several important and sometimes competing concepts such as Performance and Reliability, Sustainability and Societal Impact, and Economics. The first category, Performance and Reliability, involves familiar but complex design requirements: strength/ductility; fatigue, fatigue crack growth, impact, and creep resistance; and high-temperature properties. In addition to these traditional design requirements, an increasingly important consideration in an environmentally conscious world is the Sustainability and Societal Impact of the materials/processes and end products. These “Fit- Function-Green” attributes are finally tempered by Economics, as the best material for a given application may not be economically feasible in terms of either raw materials and processing costs or recyclability. Sustainable material-process-component design and reduced energy consumption throughout the life-cycle require an increased use of recycled materials as well as recyclability of the end product, and necessitate simultaneous and compatible design and materials selection. The integration further continues within each of these main areas via consistent and connective multi-disciplinary and multi-scale approaches. This context generates fertile opportunities for the ingenious materials engineer to develop a holistic approach in which experimental, analytical, and computational knowledge is coupled with suitable and sustainable application-driven design and manufacturing strategies, ultimately leading to a final component with the right balance between performance, manufacturability, sustainability, and affordability. This symposium will address these aspects in the context of needs and developments, focusing on important factors that contribute to material-process-component design, performance, and sustainability. Prospective topics include (and are not limited to) fundamental developments and design considerations related to: (1) effects of traditional and novel bulk and surface processes on micro-/nano-structure evolution of materials (e.g. Cast and Wrought Alloy Processing, Additive Manufacturing, Cold Spray Technology, Gradient and Functional Materials Fabrication, Friction Stir Welding/Processing, Metal Matrix (nano)Composites, Shot/Laser-Shock/Ultrasonic/Cavitation Peening, Low Plasticity Burnishing, etc.), (2) multi-scale microstructural effects on the behavior of materials (i.e., static properties, fatigue, fatigue crack growth, thermo-mechanical fatigue, impact, high-temperature properties and creep) and their integration in design, (3) interfacial and residual stress effects (both surface and bulk – measurement, effects on properties and life, and design approaches), (4) advanced material/behavior characterization methods (e.g. DIC, EBSD, tomography, and other in-situ and ex-situ methods), (5) testing advances and non-destructive evaluation techniques for damage detection and monitoring, (6) advances in Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) related to microstructure and properties simulation and prediction, and (7) sustainable approaches to material-process-component design, life-cycle analyses, and recycling considerations. A student poster competition will be held; to be considered for this competition, select "Student Poster" as your presentation type below.