Program Organizers: Professor Krishna Rajan, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-3590; Dr. Michael Fury, Rodel Inc., 451 Bellvue Road, Newark, DE 19713
Thursday, AM Room: Grand K
February 8, 1996 Location: Anaheim Marriott Hotel
Session Chairperson: Mukesh Desai, Speedfam Corporation, 7406 W. Detroit, Chandler, AZ
8:30 am Invited
ELECTROCHEMICAL EFFECTS IN THE CHEMICAL-MECHANICAL POLISHING OF COPPER FOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: C.A. Sainio, D.J. Duquette, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-3590
Because of its high conductivity and high resistance to electromigration, copper has been proposed as a replacement for aluminum in silicon integrated circuit interconnections. Chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) is being investigated as a means for patterning copper interconnects. The studies described in this work have focused on understanding the electrochemical and mechanical parameters that control planarization during CMP. The role of dissolved Cu2+ ion, oxidizers, and passivators in the polishing solutions has been investigated. Electrochemical potential, pH, and linear polarization resistance measurements have been used to characterize the removal of copper during CMP. The effects of the slurry on the diffusion barrier (titanium or tantalum) have been examined as well as possible interactions of copper with the diffusion barrier. It is shown that electrochemical techniques can be used to study the effects of chemical compositions of polishing solutions on the planarization process.
9:00 am Invited
ADVANCES IN PHYSICALLY-BASED EROSION SIMULATORS FOR CMP: Scott R. Runnels, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX
A physically-based simulation platform has been developed that is capable of simulating the complete erosion of multiple oxide features during chemical-mechanical polishing of semiconductor wafers. The platform separates the erosion model from the stress model, making it easy to use and versatile. In this talk, theories of planarization will be reviewed and their implementation into the simulator explained. Erosion simulation results will also be presented.
THE MECHANICS OF PAD DEFORMATION: Krishna Rajan, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-3590
The development of pads in chem-mechanical planarization technologies is a critical component of this technology, yet is governed by a high degree of empiricism. While there is strong need to develop customized pads for different types of polishing applications, there is at present no scientific framework to design and manufacture pads. In this presentation, we develop such a framework based on understanding the relationship between the mechanical properties of pad materials and their "microstructure".
10:00 am BREAK
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS FOR CMP: Robert Korman, MEGA Systems and Chemicals, Dennis Capitanio, Pall Corporation, Scientific & Laboratory Services Dept., 25 Harbor Park Drive, Port Washington, NY 11050
Until recently slurry blending and distribution was done in small batches in close proximity to the polisher. The modern FAB equipped with many polishing lines demand that a slurry be mixed, filtered and delivered to each polisher in a highly automated fashion. The slurry must be of reproducible quality and concentration as well as free of agglomerates and foreign contaminants. These distribution systems are referred to as Bulk Slurry Distribution Systems (BSDS`) which meet the unique requirements of the CMP process. The design of a distribution system is discussed in great detail to emphasize the need for solid engineering practice and field experience to meet every aspect of slurry management and distribution. Also presented will be an in depth study of CMP slurry filtration that was recently undertaken to insure that a contaminant free product is delivered to the polisher.
ASPECTS OF COPPER ELECTROCHEMISTRY IN CHEMOMECHANICAL POLISHING: THE Cu-HH3/AMINE-H20 SYSTEMS: K. Osseo-Assare,, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, K. Mishra, MEMC Electronic Materials, Inc., 501 Pearl Drive, St. Peters, MO 63376.
Copper contamination during wet-chemical processing is well known. Thermodynamic stability fields of various copper-complexes are presented in terms Eh-pH (Pourbaix), log (Cu)-pH and log (Ligand)-pH diagrams. These diagrams provide a basis for a discussion of the mechanisms of copper contamination. The presence of ammonia/aimine reduces the CuO/Cu2O passivity and enhances the formation of cuprous/cupric-ammonia complexes. Comparison of the copper-NH3/amine stability diagrams with the relevant Si-H2O system reveals the process conditions that favor copper deposition on silicon as well as its subsequent dissolution.
PANEL DISCUSSION: MATERIAL SCIENCE ROADMAP FOR CHEM-MECHANICAL PLANARIZATION: Moderators: Dr. K.V. Ravi, Applied Materials Corporation, MS-0204, 3100 Bowen Avenue, Santa Clara, CA 95054; Dr. Michael Fury, Rodel Inc., 451 Bellvue Road, Newark, DE 19713; Professor Krishna Rajan, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-3590
Abstract not available.
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