Program Organizers: Professor Krishna Rajan, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-3590
Wednesday, PM Room: Grand K
February 7, 1996 Location: Anaheim Marriott Hotel
Session Chairperson: Professor Krishna Raja, Materials Science and Engineering Dept. Rensselear Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY; Dr. K.V. Ravi, Applied Materials Corporation, MS-0204, 3100 Bowen Avenue, Santa Clara, CA 95054
2:00 pm Invited
A PROGRESS REPORT ON THE SCIENCE OF CMP: WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?: Frank B. Kaufman, Cabot Corporation, Microelectronics Division, Aurora, IL.
The implementation of Chemical-Mechanical Polishing (CMP) processes into high volume semiconductor manufacturing on a schedule (for some users) that is significantly more aggressive than the SIA roadmap, means that scientific investigations into this novel technology must be both accelerated in time and more focussed in scope. Drawing from published work in the open scientific literature, and from recent results in the author's laboratory, we will highlight the research areas which currently appear to offer significant leverage in terms of (a) enhancing manufacturability of the CMP technology, (b) identifying potential paradyne shifts to current CMP processing, and, (c) providing a foundation for robust modelling capabilities in the area of polishing pads, and oxide and metal CMP. We will conclude by suggesting ways in which suppliers, universities and the national laboratories can work more effectively together to do targeted research on the relevant science behind CMP.
PAD DEGRADATION AND CONDITIONING STUDIES FOR CMP OF INTERLAYER DIELECTRIC FILMS: K. Achuthan, S.V. Babu, Department of Chemical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; J. Curry, R.H. Strasbaugh Inc., San Luis Obispo, CA; D.R. Campbell, Center for Advanced Materials Processing, Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY
As integrated circuit technology approaches the era of Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI), chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is being introduced into the mainstream of semiconductor processing to help accommodate the sub half-micron design ground rules. In this paper, an attempt to understand different aspects of CMP process with emphasis on the polish pad degradation and its conditioning on Silica films is sought. Chemical mechanical polishing is found to result from a complex interplay of many mechanical and chemical parameters. Degradation of polishing pad is one of the major shortcomings of the CMP process and significantly affects the overall process stability and cost of ownership. Pad conditioning helps maintain removal rate stability and thereby enhances the longevity of the pad. In this study, the effect of different pad conditioners and conditioning processes are discussed.
3:00 pm Invited
CHALLENGES IN CMP OF MATERIALS FOR SEMICONDUCTING DEVICES AND CIRCUITS: Shyam P. Murarka, Center for Integrated Electronics and Electronics Manufacturing, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180
Planarized surfaces alleviate problems associated with the lithography, overetching, thinning of the films during deposition on non-planarized surfaces, and asperities at the surface leading to potentially damaging effects on the electrical behavior of devices. In the recent past, the chemical mechanical polishing or planarization (CMP) has been demonstrated to be the preferred technique to achieve so-called global planarization at all levels. CMP, although practiced for thousands of years, has remained an art made useful, practical, and beautiful more by experience than by scientific understanding. This paper will briefly review the CMP processes used or needed in microelectronics fabrication and the variables in the CMP process. This will be followed by an assessment of the scientific issues, including those associated with post CMP cleaning and passivation and the electrochemical phenomena, that must be addressed to make the art of CMP into a scientifically based technology, useful for both small and large area planarization.
3:30 pm BREAK
MECHANISMS OF THIN FILM OXIDE POLISHING: Krishna Rajan, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-3590
Chem-mechanical polishing of oxides is a critical component in the manufacturing steps of multi-level interconnects. The role of chemical and mechanical interactions on thin oxide films is fundamentally different than in bulk oxides. In this presentation, we outline these differences and discuss the fundamental mechanisms controlling material removal and its effect on properties of thin film dielectric oxides.
THE IMPORTANCE OF PARTICLE SIZE TO THE PERFORMANCE OF ABRASIVE PARTICLES IN THE CMP PROCESS: Michael C. Pohl, Horiba Instruments, Inc., 17671 Armstrong Avenue, Irvine, CA 92714
One of the critical components in the CMP process is the abrasive used to
achieve the planarization. The speed of the process, the degree of scratching
and the ability to subsequently perform the post-cleaning operation are all
determined by the abrasive particle size. A variety of techniques exist to
measure the particle size, and they must be carefully evaluated. It is critical
that the size reported is indicative of the particles in use in the process and
not the particles seen by the instrument. Several areas are critical to
measuring particle size even before the sample is introduced to the instrument.
First is obtaining a representative sample for analysis. Another critical area
is the dispersion of the particles in the liquid phase. This application is
particularly critical since it is a concentrated slurry of very small
particles. This issue will be discussed both theoretically and practically.
Finally, application of particle size information to abrasive slurries will be
discussed, as well as aging phenomena.
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