|Scenes from Monday Events|
More than 65 attendees gathered early
yesterday morning for the Women in Science Breakfast. Following opening comments
by TMS Women in Science Committee Chair Mary Juhas of The Ohio State University,
participants engaged in roundtable discussions that opened dialogue among young
professionals, students, and established professionals.
Professor Morris E. Fine was honored at Monday's Materials Research Applied
to National Needs (MARANN) Symposium, which honored the Northwestern University
professor on his 95th birthday for his outstanding contributions to the field
of materials science and engineering. Left is Alan Taub, presenting "Lightweight
Materials for the Automotive Industry - Materials Research Applied to National
Energy Agenda." Right is Morris Fine, whostepped in when presenter Julia Weertman had to cancel due to illness, and
discussed a steel he was instrumental in developing known as NUCu 70 steel.
Alex Zunger, professor at the University of Colorado, Boulder, delivered
the William Hume-Rothery Award Lecture, "First Principles Alloy Theory--A Retrospective"
on Monday morning.
2013 Aluminum Keynote Covers the Spectrum of "Impurities in the Aluminum
Examining the impact of impurities across the entirety of the
aluminum industry was the focus of the TMS2013 Aluminum Keynote Session on Monday.
While each of the seven presenters focused on different issues, approaches, and
technologies, a consistent theme underscored each of them, noted Barry Sadler,
program organizer and editor of this year's Light Metals, in his opening remarks: "There has already been
a lot of work underway on impurity issues and it will only continue to grow."
stage for the subsequent discussions was Stephen Lindsay, Alcoa, in his talk,
"Raw Material Impurities and the Challenge Ahead." As the demand on the existing
resources for raw materials increases, raw material purity is likely to decline
over time, Lindsay said. In turn, impurities and changes in impurities will take
on greater meaning for process control, equipment design and selection, metal
products, and environmental, health, and safety considerations. "Impurities have
the potential to reshape certain aspects of the design and operation of smelters,
electrode plants, cast shops, and refineries," he said. "Many of the potential
outcomes of higher impurities may not require new technology, but different applications
of existing technologies." Lindsay further noted that "the story about impurities
is not all bad," specifically citing the benefits of the research that will be
required to better understand and address impurity issues. "The study of trace
impurities reveal a lot about work practices and process control," he said.
Metson, University of Auckland, followed with his presentation, "Impacts of Impurities
Introduced into the Aluminium Reduction Cell." Metson looked beyond metal quality,
noting, "It is also necessary to consider those impurities which don't report
to the metal." On this point, he observed that control or even analysis of bath
chemistry had become quite challenging. Metson said that while the industry is
getting better at some aspects of managing impurities, "The neglected part is
the electrochemistry and the impacts on the process are considerable. This is
driving down our ability to dissolve alumina and tightening the production window.
In some parts of the world, we are well out of our comfort zone in terms of our
understanding of this chemistry, decreasing our ability to dissolve alumina at
the rate we need."
In the next presentation, "Changes in Global Refining
and Its Impact on Anode Quality Petroleum Coke," Karl Bartholomew, KBC Advanced
Technologies, Inc., outlined the economic drivers that have profoundly affected
the quality and quantity of calcinable anode grade petroleum coke. Of particular
significance has been the rapid emergence of shale oil production in the United
States. "Since 2009, the U.S. has gone from almost no production of shale
oil to over a million barrels a day," he said. However, in the prevailing
business model, a very small percentage of this high quality crude is sent to
the coking room. Comparatively, more than 30 percent of certain types of poor
quality crude from outside of the U.S. is used to make petroleum coke. As a consequence,
although the United States is producing a better quality crude, the "quality of
pet coke has gotten worse," Bartholomew said. "30 to 40 years ago, the only region
of the world that coked oil was North America. That has changed," he continued.
"Coking capacity is now growing everywhere else but North America."
Weber, RTA Sebree, then provided an overview of how her company developed and
deployed an effective technical improvement plan in "Impact of Higher Vanadium
Levels on Smelter Operations." RTA Sebree made a choice to accept increased impurities
in one of the primary cokes used in the coke blend supplied to the smelter, in
return for a significant cost discount. Faced with a negative impact on anode
consumption, current efficiency, power consumption, and other metrics, RTA developed
a work quality management system to ensure that all potline operators, regardless
of experience level, were well trained in basic practices. The project started
with a focused analysis of practices in a 42-pot test section. The most critical
20 percent of these procedures were then identified and made the subject of an
intensive training session for all operators, using photographs of depicting "go"
and "no go" situations as a teaching tool. A system to monitor individual performance,
based on these parameters, was also implemented as a means to identify the need
for further coaching. "This illustrates what can be achieved through effective
management and people working together," Weber said.
New Zealand Aluminium Smelters Ltd, also touched on the human factor necessary
for success in "Impact on Smelter Operations of Operating High Purity Reduction
Cells." Presented as a case study, Hamilton noted that "everyone must be engaged
in the mindset," because of the expense and complexity of high purity production.
"The good thing about a high purity focus is that it rubs off into other areas,"
he said. "The more we focus on purity, the more we understand and improve other
parameters of smelter operations."
Muhammad Rhamdhani's presentation moved
the discussion from the pot room to the cast house. In "Management of Impurities
in Cast House with Particular Reference to Ni and V," he offered an in-depth overview
of current and emerging technologies for impurities removal. While these work
well for selected elements, he concluded that the boron treatment process for
controlling vanadium is not optimized, while no existing technique effectively
controls nickel in the cast house. "Strategies through the whole process chain
may need to be considered," he said. "And, some fundamental studies need to be
John Grandfield, Grandfield Technology Pty Ltd., examined
the potential impact of impurities on the end product in the final presentation,
"An Initial Assessment of the Effects of Increased Ni and V Content in AA6063
and A356 Alloys." He shared an initial investigation conducted for two commonly
used alloys, AA6060/6063 and A356, in which castings were produced with low typical
levels of NiV and with high NiV levels approaching the maximum P1020 specification
of 300ppm each. Microstructural changes, tensile properties, and corrosion resistance
were measured, with small changes in corrosion performance and tensile properties
detected in some instances. While the exact effects depend on the alloy system,
Grandfield noted that "vanadium and nickel may have effects even at dilute levels
on some properties. We need to start to coordinate with customers so that they
do not suddenly find that the properties of their products have changed."
question and answer session followed the presentations, moderated by Les Edwards,
session chair. All of the technical papers presented in the keynote session will
be published in the 2013 Light Metals proceedings.
REWAS Plenary: Collaborations and Sustainability
By Graduate Student Reporter Alex Leary, Carnegie
Organizers planned REWAS 2013 to be a platform for stakeholders
from different fields tointeract and discuss the implementation of sustainable products and processes.
Helga Vanthournout from McKinsey & Co. summed up a recurring theme from
talks stating "more collaboration is needed since scale is required to
value across the supply chain."
several business sectors described the challenges facing their respective
industries. Todd DiNoia, Technical Director Habitat R&D from
the issue in the building industry by contrasting the
significant efficiency gains
in the transportation sector over the past thirty
years to the relatively flat performance from building
technologies. "The energy problem in the building industry will not
be solved by
one or two products," said DiNoia, "and requires investment in
He further stated that "many of the technologies
already exist, and we need to
show the community of architects and builders how
to assemble them." DiNoia described investments by Saint-Gobain
into several technology areas including electronically tintable glass, solid
fuel cells, IR reflective roof shingles, and VOC scavenging wall boards
all designed to improve building comfort while lowering energy costs.
The needs in
the building industry, where the typical product lifecycle is 50 years in the
States, was contrasted by the rapid market growth and short device life cycle found
in the electronics industry. Bill Bader, CEO of iNEMI, produces a
on input from a consortium of electronics
stakeholders. When asked how he organizes input from potential
competitors, Bader replied "the key to successful collaboration is to pick
that are precompetitive in nature and where intellectual property is
not at risk.
Solutions to environmental problems often fit this
criteria and we have situations
where four to six of the top companies in the
electronics world are working together."
from GE offered his perspective on water resources. Over the course of his
the low price of water limited the incorporation of new technologies,
scarcity problems that we're seeing in the world have spurred a growth
use of technology in the water industry" in the past ten years, according
He predicts that "electricity consumption will
double and water use will triple by 2030. Historically it's been a
matter of treating and discharging. This is not the wave of the
future." A new
system based on various levels of reuse is being
developed to accommodate needs
in both urban and rural areas.
Vanthournout further described the need to modify our production and
consumption systems. "We take resources and put them through our
process, sell them, and dispose of the materials. So
basically all the materials
leave the economy." She called for more
sophisticated business models that not
only recycle, but also incorporate reuse
and remanufacturing of materials that were previously considered
waste. "The idea that you need to own something to use it is
changing," added Vanthournout,
who cited a tire company that leases tires
to trucking companies that pay per mile. This encourages the company
to develop materials that reduce waste as well as lower costs.
was seen as a key driver for material advances and Julio Friedmann from
Livermore Laboratories described several key technologies that are
the innovation cycle in materials design including modeling to
materials and advanced manufacturing processes.
Magnesium Technology 2013 Kicks Off with Plenary Session
By Graduate Student Reporter Graham Sanborn, Georgia
The TMS conference kicked off the week with a special plenary session at
the Magnesium Technology 2013 symposium.Throughout the morning, six presenters
spoke about topics ranging from magnesium
(Mg) grain refinement technology to testing their corrosion resistance and
phase transformations. At the beginning of the session, four best paper awards
from the 2012 proceedings were given in the topics of application, fundamental,
poster, and student.
Karl Kainer from the
started the morning with a review of Mg alloys in
the 21st century. Kainer
started by discussing Elektron, the first patented Mg-based alloys, and the
International Magnesium Association (IMA). From here, he detailed the process
of high-purity alloys. Examples covered the engine and transmission
in the first VW Beetle to the high-temperature-resistant
Mg materials used
for today's automobiles.
An invited talk by David StJohn of
of Queensland discussed the history of grain refinement technology
in cast Mg
alloys. This talk started with the first work on grain refinement in
and zirconium addition to induce grain refinement. StJohn introduced
Theory as a theoretical framework to understand the
mechanism of grain refinement
and the role of solutes. He also spoke about the
importance of Mg-Zr master alloys and the current developments of Mg-Al
Joy Forsmark, Ford Motor Company, gave a talk about the
United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) magnesium front end
and development project. This project is a collaborative partnership
GM, Chevrolet, and the U.S. government to develop and advance Mg
in automotive parts. Specifically, Forsmark reviewed
results from phase 1 of the
project, which set out to develop and test a Mg "demonstration" structure. The
design study found that the use of Mg parts
could result in a 45% weight reduction and 60% part consolidation in unibody
designs, and could result in a 25% weight savings in body-on-frame designs.
talk focused on AC-DC-AC testing methods to assess corrosion resistance of
coatings in Mg alloys. This talk was given by Robert C. McCune, Robert
& Associates LLC, and focused on the automotive Mg parts discussed
in the previous
talk. McCune discussed how the automotive industry could use
methods, and presented results from the AC-DC-AC and
impedance spectroscopy testing methods.
Rainer Schmid-Fetzer of the
Clausthal University of Technology presented on the thermodynamics of phase
in Mg-La-Ce-Nd alloys for new material development in the
industry. He spoke about
the need for better experimental data and the
formation of complex intermetallic
solid solutions in these systems.
The last talk of the morning was
presented by Yoshihito Kawamura from Kumamoto University on current
of high strength and non-flammable Mg alloys. He discussed a new
non-flammable, and corrosion resistant alloy that could make Mg
production more cost effective and safe.
Norbert Hort of the
Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Centre for Materials and Coastal Research served
the session moderator.
Plenary Session Opens Ni-Co 2013 Symposium
By Graduate Student Reporter
Alex Leary, Carnegie Mellon University
week, San Antonio hosts the world's experts in nickel and cobalt production. TMS,
in collaboration with several internationalsocieties, sponsored the gathering that occurs every four years. In
Monday's NiCo plenary session, Gary Coates and David Weight, respectively from
the Nickel Institute and the Cobalt Development Institute, described the
development, major material classes, and wide range of applications
from these elements.
steel accounts for
65% of Ni usage annually and the Nickel Institute recently
celebrated the 100th anniversary of Maurer and Strauss' patent
with an exposition in Beijing last May. Cobalt is typically a
byproduct of other
manufacturing processes and demand for cobalt production
increased by 5% over
the last 10 years, according to Weight. Rechargeable batteries account for the largest usage per
year of cobalt, recently surpassing its usage in superalloys.
described cobalt recycling techniques, many currently practiced by industry. "The
most efficient method for recycling is to re-melt the scrap at the source," said
Ferron, but he continued to show potential value in recycling from
including Co-based catalysts, spent batteries, and various wastes
cobalt production. While he believes that the technical
challenges to cobalt recycling
have largely been solved, the current Co
recycling rate of 32% is limited by economic factors such as the costs to sort
and transport spent materials. Comparatively, primary production
the more attractive option over recycling. However, as the
copperbelt in central
Africa contains nearly half of the world's known cobalt
arising from regional instability may affect prices
of sulphides, the traditional source ore for nickel production, is also
Alan Taylor of ALTA Meltallurgical Services described
production methods based on laterites, an alternative ore
source. Most of the operations currently processing laterites use a
that is well known, but requires complex downstream
processing. Alternative methods using chloride and nitric acids have
been tested, but not yet commercialized. The advantages and disadvantages
technique vary, especially since ore bodies are not necessarily located
useful energy sources. Taylor encouraged further research
into these processes,
as "there is not yet a clear winner."
production scale and capital costs associated with metal production can slow
adoption of new technologies. Antoine Allanore from MIT
approached metals production
by first asking, "What would be your wish list?" He listed reduced environmental
impact, lower costs, added flexibility in raw
materials, and improved metal quality
as the top priorities. Allanore, speaking on behalf of Professor Donald Sadoway, believes molten oxide
electrolysis (MOE) offers a potential path to making these wishes
from MOE derive by replacing carbon with electrons as the fuel and
the process flow can be streamlined through
the use of a single continuous reactor, which generates oxygen as a valuable
byproduct. Allanore estimates CO2 reductions of 22% with natural
gas derived electricity
and the entire process can be carbon free with
renewable sources. Allanore's group demonstrated lab scale
production of several metals including Ni, Ti, and FeMn, and future efforts will
focus on the scale up design of an efficient self-heating cell.
The Ni-Co 2013
symposium continues through Thursday.
Up the Pace of Networking
"I felt like I
got through the entire TMS2013 week in one hour," said Cindy Belt at the
of the Peer-to-Peer Networking event held on Monday.
offered to symposium organizers and TMS committee,
division, and board members,
the program enabled participants to establish
connections with ten different colleagues in a very compressed timeframe. For
less than 10 minutes at a time, everyone met individually with one of their
"partners," matched according to professional interests provided in
prior to the event. A customized networking schedule provided
to each participant
provided background on each of their partners, eliminating
the need to use up
their precious time on details.
Most of the
participants found the experience enjoyable, although trying to constrain all
that they wanted to share in a few minutes was a little intense. "You really
to condense your story," said Iver Anderson, "but you meet a lot of people
a short period of time."
agreed. "I'm in ceramics and
about half the people I met were not in my area of
materials - I would not
have encountered them in technical sessions. These are
individuals I would probably
never have otherwise met."
Networking Event is one of several
resources that TMS has offered at TMS2013 to
support and thank the volunteers
who make the Annual Meeting-and many other
aspects of TMS-possible.
To find out how you can become involved as a TMS
volunteer, visit the TMS
Volunteer Central website.
Young Leader International Scholar Discusses Graphene as a Chemical Platform
By Graduate Student Reporter Graham Sanborn, Georgia Tech
This exciting new lecture is the result of a recent partnership
between TMS and the Federation of European Materials Societies (FEMS), insupport
of the society's strategic goal to "Be the destination society for
technically, professionally and socially." The FEMS
Young Leader International
Scholar, Vincenzo Palermo of the National Research
Council of Italy, gave the
lecture titled "Not a Molecule, Not a Polymer, Not a
Substrate: The Many Faces
of Graphene as a Chemical Platform."
Palermo discussed the
use of functional organic materials today and how the development of graphene
compounds could revolutionize the ways they are used. Depending on the
and form of graphene, it can be used as a molecule (in the form of
a polymer, and a substrate. These different "roles" are a
result of graphene's
unique electronic and dimensional properties. Palermo compared
the large single
layer graphene (SLG) that is produced today to a material the
thickness of a blanket
that was the area of a soccer field.
Developments on new ways to obtain SLG were also presented.
Current exfoliation techniques to obtain SLG are insufficient for industrial
He presented developments on nano-graphene compounds that act as "wedges" between
graphene layers and assist graphene exfoliation during
sonication. The new method
shows improved production of SLG; however, developments
are still underway.
Steigerwald Offers 'A View from the Hill'
Want to know what it's really like to work, on a daily
basis, influencing policy in Washington, D.C.? Ask Andrew Steigerwald, 2012-2013
MRS/TMS Congressional Fellow. At his Monday morning presentation, "A View from
the Hill: The 2012-2013 Congressional Fellowship," Steigerwald provided his audience
with a glimpse of his activities working in the office of U.S. Senator Sherrod
Brown--going so far as to show what his calendar looks like on a typical work
week. (Hint: It includes meetings - lots of meetings.)The selection process
for the 2013-2014 MRS/TMS Congressional Fellow is currently in progress. Applications
for the 2014-2015 Congressional Fellowship will open in early September and are
due January 2014.
The talk was designed as an
informational session for any TMS members interested in working with public policy
issues or in applying for a future fellowship. Steigerwald described how his work
involves developing policy ideas, turning ideas into legislation, and taking and
processing input from stakeholders.
His conclusion about the program: The
experience is an "absolutely, unparalleled opportunity to jump into the highest
level of policy-making."
Energy Networking Breakfast Convenes Technical Committees
Representatives from more than ten TMS energy-related
agreed early Monday that annual meeting attendees as well as
benefit from greater collaboration on future programming and
activities. The Energy
Networking Breakfast, sponsored by the Materials and
Society Committee, was organized
by committee members Cindy Belt and Iver
During the session, Belt invited participants to describe what
symposia their committees were organizing at the 2013 Annual Meeting. In
numerous topical areas such as waste heat recovery and lightweighting
in an exercise that highlighted how multiple committees at times
in the same areas, unintentionally competing with one
another for attendees' attention.
"We want to
make sure there is no overlap," Belt, who is
Energy Committee chair, told the
group. She suggested that committees consider
working together to co-sponsor symposia if their programming covers similar
Although the potential was suggested for a single Materials
Production symposium, the practicality of such a program was
questioned, as some
symposia currently involve many sessions already, and would
be too unwieldy to
fold into a larger event. However, the group agreed that a
future plenary session
presenting highlights of those individual symposia would
be possible, and warranted
further discussion. After the annual meeting, Belt told the group, the
should continue at the committee level to begin to encourage more
Institute of Metals/Robert Franklin Mehl Lecture
Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center, Room 201
Extraction & Processing Division/Materials
Processing & Manufacturing Division Joint Luncheon Lecture
Hyatt Hotel, Texas Ballroom C
Young Leader Tutorial Luncheon Lecture
Hyatt Hotel, Texas Ballroom D
Exhibit Hall Luncheon
Noon to 2:00 p.m.
B. Gonzalez Convention Center, Exhibit Hall C
and Society Award Special Symposium:
Global R&D Trends -- Implications for
2:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Henry B. Gonzalez Convention
Center, Lila Cockrell Theatre
3:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Grand Hyatt Hotel, Bonham B
Exhibit Hall Happy Hour
5:00 p.m. to 6:00
Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center, Exhibit Hall C
142nd TMS-AIME Annual Awards Banquet
Henry B. Gonzalez
Convention Center, Lila Cockrell Theatre