The 13th International Conference on the Technology of Plasticity (ICTP 2020) is dedicated to convening the breadth of the metal forming community to share their latest improvements and innovations in all aspects of metal forming science and technology. The heart of the ICTP conference series are the technical contributions.
No material has been as important as metal in humanity’s control over its environment. Since ancient history, metal processing and metal forming have shaped and advanced technological and cultural innovation as well as competitive advantage. Metal forming has remained an important pillar for technology and innovation.
What are the drivers for metal forming and technological development today and tomorrow? Which global challenges are calling for innovative solutions? How can sustainable innovation be best achieved?
Contemporary and future technologies are characterized by demands for ultra-high precision, multi-functionality, the integration of smart components, miniaturization, enhanced safety, customization and improved sustainability, and resource efficiency. This all has a profound impact on requirements for metal forming, machine tools, and production processes. Other key innovation drivers are advancements in Industry 4.0/Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, simulation tools and the new paradigm of the Biological Transformation that can leverage metal forming onto a new level, e.g., for optimized resource efficiency, temperature control, waste and error reduction, and superior designs for efficiency gains.
Especially in domains close to industry, like metal forming, applied research plays a very important role for innovation-transfer because of the translating role between new scientific discoveries and actual implementation in real industrial processes. This process is also reflected in the domain of Informed Machine Learning, where a collaboration between theoretical knowledge, big data applications and industrial domain expertise is necessary to tackle optimization strategies for industrial processes, like metal forming.
Demand for metal forming is also likely to grow in high-innovation areas like energy and environmental technologies, medical equipment, aerospace, and new mobility and automotive concepts with a focus on electric drives, lightweight materials, and integrated intelligent functions. However, the application areas and technological products that involve metal forming are also related to priorities in trade, industry, and innovation policy. The shift to renewable energy technologies and the emphasis on resource and energy efficiency, carbon-emission reduction, and climate goals can be named as examples for major future-oriented drivers.
Reimund Neugebauer, D.Eng has been the president of Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft e.V. since 2012. Prior to this, some of his more recent roles include president of German Academic Society for Production Engineering (WGP) (2010–2011), initiator and spokesperson of the Fraunhofer AutoMOBILE Production Alliance (2010), dean of the faculty of mechanical engineering at Chemnitz University of Technology (2003–2006), founding president of Industrieverein Sachsen 1828 e.V. (2000). He was the executive director of Fraunhofer IWU from 1994–2012.
Neugebauer has been awarded honorary doctorate degrees from Michigan State University (2019), Budapest University of Technology and Economics (2018), Catholic University of Leuven (2016), Wroclaw University of Science and Technology (2015), the University of Naples Federico II (2015), Czech Technical University (2014), Stellenbosch University (2013), Technical University of Munich (2012), Brno University of Technology (2007), and Moscow State University of Technology (2003). Neugebauer has been the co-chair of the German federal government’s High-Tech Forum and a member of the Innovationsbeirat Sachsen since 2019. In addition, he has been on the steering of the Plattform Lernende Systeme, a platform for artificial intelligence and machine learning, since 2017 and on the Executive Board of Plattform Industrie 4.0 since 2016.
Despite numerous studies, the prediction of ductile damage and failure during metal forming processes still needs further investigations in particular for complex loading paths. Ductile damage analysis is usually addressed through uncoupled failure criteria or coupled damage models. Both approaches rely either on micromechanical bases or on phenomenological considerations. After a short review of these different approaches, the talk will focus on the main complexities related to damage analysis during metal forming processes. Strain rate and temperature effects, complex multiaxial stress states, non-proportional and cyclic loading conditions will be addressed with examples given at the process scale, whereas a micro-scale finite element framework will also be presented to get a better understanding of some of the physical mechanisms arising in such complex loading conditions.
Pierre-Olivier Bouchard holds an engineering degree in computational engineering and applied mathematics and a Ph.D. in computational mechanics. He is a professor at the Center for Material Forming Processes (CEMEF) of Mines ParisTech in France. His research is dedicated to the numerical modeling of material forming process, multi-scale damage and fracture mechanics and to the influence of forming processes on in-use properties. He is the recipient of the 2005 European Scientific Prize ESAFORM for his work on the 3D Numerical Modelling of Damage and Fracture, and he is the coordinator of the MECAMAT French national association working group dedicated to the physics, mechanics and modeling of damage and fracture.
An accurate description of the yield surface defining the onset of plastic deformation is essential for high-fidelity numerical predictions of forming processes. Due to the ease in calibration from simple tests, generally von Mises isotropic criterion and Hill orthotropic criterion are used in industry. While more advanced 3-D yield criteria have been developed, generally such criteria are written in terms of eigenvalues of transformed stress tensors and as such the anisotropy coefficients are not directly expressible in terms of mechanical properties.
Using general representation theorems, generalizations of the isotropic invariants J2 and J3 such as to account for plastic anisotropy have been developed. Using these anisotropic invariants, the anisotropic form of any isotropic yield function can be obtained simply by replacing J2 and J3 with their respective anisotropic generalizations. This framework ensures that the minimum number of anisotropy coefficients is specified.
Illustrative examples of full three-dimensional yield criteria expressed in terms of generalized invariants and their application to the prediction of formability of single crystals and polycrystalline FCC, BCC and HCP materials are presented.
Oana Cazacu is the Charles E. Taylor Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida-REEF. She graduated from University of Bucharest (Romania) with a joint B.S. and M.S. in Applied Mathematics in 1990 and earned a Ph.D. and Habilitation degree (HDR) from University of Lille, France in 1995 and 2004, respectively. She is the Editor of the Plasticity of Materials book series (Elsevier), Associated Editor of Mechanics Research Communications (Elsevier) and International Journal of Material Forming (Springer), and member of the editorial board of Springer Nature Applied Sciences (Springer).
Her main research interests lie in theoretical and computational solid mechanics with focus on multi-scale modeling of plasticity and damage in textured metals. Major contributions include the development of widely used anisotropic criteria for lightweight metals, now included in the built-in materials library of commercial and academic finite-element codes. She has authored and co-authored one boo and 13 book chapters. Oana has edited and co-edited four books, has 90+ papers in refereed international journals, and over 60 articles in proceedings of international conferences. Lectures include 90 invited lectures in international conferences and research institutions (18 plenary or keynote lectures). She has been the recipient of visiting chair professorships in Europe (e.g. University Pierre and Marie Curie (Paris-Sorbonne), University of Lille; Univ. of Lorraine, France; Univ. Carlos III de Madrid, Spain), and Australia (Swinburne University).
Superior structural properties of materials are generally desired in harsh environments, such as elevated temperatures, the high strain rates of impact, and radiation. Composite nanolaminates, built with alternating stacks of metal layers, each with nanoscale individual thickness, are proving to exhibit many of these target properties. In principle, the nanolaminate concept can be applied to any two-phase, bimetallic system; however, they have not been widely applied to materials with a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure. Many important structural metals used today belong to the hcp class of materials. Some examples of well-known hcp metals are Mg, Zr, and Ti and their alloys. These alloys are technologically relevant, bearing desirable intrinsic properties, such as low specific density, fatigue resistance, biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and radiation resistance. Even in coarse-grained traditional form, there is an increasing demand to use hcp materials more often and more broadly in structural applications within the automotive, aircraft, aerospace, biomedical, and nuclear industries. The roadblock to applying the nanolaminate concept to hcp materials is their complex, anisotropic deformation behavior. In this presentation, we discuss recently developed methods to manufacture nanostructured composites containing hcp metals. These techniques exploit plastic deformation as part of the synthesis process and have potential to manufacture product in forms and sizes suitable for high-performance structural applications. One method utilizes severe plastic deformation to make sheets of two-dimensional nanolayered Zr/Nb composite. The material produced exhibits exceptionally high strength and enhanced formability. Another method employs intermediate plastic deformation to create bulk samples of hierarchical three-dimensional nanolayered Zr/Nb composite. The resulting material has a combination of high strength, strain hardening, and ductility. We further highlight in this presentation the modeling and experimental efforts to understand the linkages between the internal nanostructure resulting from processing, local deformation mechanisms, and superior macroscale properties. Although we focus these examples on the Zr/Nb system, the insight gained and manufacturing techniques developed can be applied to other bimetallic systems.
Irene J. Beyerlein is a professor at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) with a joint appointment in the Mechanical Engineering and Materials Departments. She currently holds the Robert Mehrabian Interdisciplinary Endowed Chair in the College of Engineering. After receiving her Ph.D. degree in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics at Cornell University in 1997, she began a postdoctoral appointment as a J.R. Oppenheimer Fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory, where she remained on the scientific staff in the Theoretical Division, until 2016, when she joined UCSB. She has published one book, nine book chapters, and more than 300 peer-reviewed articles in the field of structural composites, materials processing, multiscale modeling of microstructure/property relationships, deformation mechanisms, and polycrystalline plasticity. She is an Editor for Acta Materialia and Scripta Materialia and an Associate Editor for Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering. In recent years, she has been awarded the Los Alamos National Laboratory Fellow’s Prize for Research (2012), the International Plasticity Young Researcher Award (2013), the TMS Distinguished Scientist/Engineering Award (2018), and the Brimacombe Metal (2019).
Incremental sheet forming (ISF) is a promising flexible forming process in fabricating low-batch or customized sheet metal parts and has potential in reduced process lead time and cost, and increased formability. In the plenary talk, recent investigations on ISF fundamentals and the technologies for ISF industrial application will be presented, which cover loading path algorithms, forming tool development, surface roughness and forming load predictions, new variants of ISF, deformation mechanism of different ISF variants and several industrial application cases. Finally, an outlook about ISF will be made as well.
Jun Chen received his Ph.D. from Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China in 1996, and he was a visiting scholar at University of Michigan and Ford Motor Company from April 1998 to April 1999. He has been a professor at Shanghai Jiao Tong University since August 2004. His research interests include advanced material stamping and incremental sheet forming, theory of plasticity and numerical simulation of metal forming processes. Chen has hosted more than 30 projects funded by the government and industries. He has jointly published more than 250 journal papers and more than 30 international conference papers, and he serves as an editorial member of five journals.
Technologies for forming and fabricating tubes have been contributing to the development of society and should evolve and have great roles in the future, considering the problems related to the environment and aging population. Tubes have advantages of high rigidity for a unit weight and could manufacture light-weight components for transport equipment. Miniature tubes would be useful at the medical front in the aging society. The technologies on tubes have the potential to contribute to solving these problems and realizing sustainable societies.
This paper introduces the authors' technologies and reviews others' recent technologies on tubes. The technologies include hydro and air forming, rotary forming, bending, micro forming and so on. These technologies are qualitatively evaluated in terms of conflicting characteristics, such as formability, strength, productivity, flexibility and miniaturization. Some technologies are emerging to improve some of the conflicting characteristics at the same time for realizing excellent performances of the formed products.
Takashi Kuboki obtained a master’s degree from Kyoto University in 1990 and started working for Sumitomo Metal Industries. He obtained a Ph.D. in engineering while conducting research and development at the company in 2001. He started his new career at the University of Electro-communication in 2003. Kuboki has work experience in industry for 13 years and in academia for 16 years.
His research field is wide due to his career in industry and academia. He accomplished research work on gears in automotive and grinding for electric devices in addition to metal forming, which includes bar and wire rod drawing, bar rolling, straightening, sheet-metal forming, tube bending, tube rotary forming, extrusion, laser cutting and others. Kuboki is widening his activities in organizations domestically and internationally. He is now a chair of the tube forming committee under The Japan Society for Technology of Plasticity. He became a Chartered Engineer of Institution of Mechanical Engineers in the UK in 2000, and an associate member in CIRP in 2016.
Below are several distinguished individual’s whose careers will be honored at this ICTP through symposia and other recognition in the programming. Please contact the key organizer listed below for additional details.
Taylan Altan, The Ohio State University, (USA)
Key Organizer: Eren Billur, Billur Metal Form, (Turkey) firstname.lastname@example.org
Betz Avitzur, Lehigh University, (USA)
Key Organizer: Wojciech Misiolek, Lehigh University (USA) email@example.com
Niels Bay, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark)
Key Organizer: Paulo Martins, University of Lisbon (Portugal) firstname.lastname@example.org
Xue Yu Ruan, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China)
Key Organizer: Jun Chen, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China) email@example.com
Yasuhisa Tozawa, Nagoya University (Japan)
Key Organizers: Takashi Ishikawa, Chubu University (Japan) firstname.lastname@example.org
Yoshinori Yoshida, Gifu University (Japan) email@example.com
Rob Wagoner, The Ohio State University (USA)
Key Organizer: Hojun Lim, Sandia National Laboratories (USA) firstname.lastname@example.org
Zhongren Wang, Harbin Institute of Technology (China)
Key Organizers: Shijian Yuan, Harbin Institute of Technology (China) email@example.com
Gang Liu, Harbin Institute of Technology (China) firstname.lastname@example.org
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