Copper Nickel and Cobalt

Exploring traditional, innovative, and revolutionary issues in the minerals, metals, and materials fields.






















"The Activox Process: Growing Significance in the Nickel Industry" (Overview), C.M. Palmer and G.D. Johnson, July 2005, pp. 40-47.

"An Air Melting Technique for Preparing Cu-Cr Alloys" (Research Summary), P.M. Berge, S.T. Kim, E.D. Gibson, and J.D. Verhoeven , July 1998, pp. 42-43.

"Alkaline Copper-Plating Process Eliminates Cyanide and Improves Product Quality" (Forum Feature), T. Davidson, December 1991, pp. 46-47.

"An Alternative to Arsenic Disposal: Wood Preservation" (Overview), R.M. Leach, September 1999, p. 34.

"Anode Slimes Treatment: The Boliden Experience" (Industrial Insight), B.M. Ludvigsson and S.R. Larsson, April 2003, pp. 41-44.

"Applying Ausmelt Processing to Complex Copper Smelter Dusts" (Overview), G.P. Swayn, K.R. Robilliard, and J.M. Floyd, August 1993, pp. 35-38.

"Applying Ausmelt Technology to Recover Cu, Ni, and Co from Slags" (Overview), S. Hughes, August 2000, pp. 30-33.

"Applying the Haring Cell to Monitor Glue Addition" (Overview), James E. Hoffmann, April 2002, pp. 24-27.

"The Art of Producing Copper in a Pierce-Smith Converter" (Metallurgraphics: Special Edition), R.F. Hernández, August 1996, pp. 39-41.

"The Behavior of Sulfur in Industrial Pyrometallurgical Slags" (Overview), M. Nagamori, August 1994, pp. 65-71.

"Bismuth: The Benign Metal?" (Commentary), J.E. Hoffmann, October 1994, pp. 10-11.

"Carbon-Containing Single-Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloys: Segregation Behavior and Carbide Formation" (Research Summary), K.A. Al-Jarba and G.E. Fuchs, September 2004, pp. 50-55.

"A Century of Discoveries, Inventors, and New Nickel Alloys" (Overview), S.J. Patel, September 2006, pp. 18-20.

"A Century of Monel Metal: 1906–2006" (Overview), L.E. Shoemaker and G.D. Smith, September 2006, pp. 22-26.

"Characterizing the Deformation of Cold-Rolled Copper Sheet" (Testing & Analysis), K.J. Kozaczek, C.O. Ruud, J.C. Conway, Jr. and C.-J. Yu, May 1990, pp. 35-38.

"Cobalt—Its Recovery, Recycling, and Application" (Overview), S. Wang, October 2006, pp. 47-50.

"Cobalt Production and Markets: A Brief Overview" (Commentary), J.P.T. Kapusta, October 2006, pp. 33-36.

"Cleaning Copper and Ni/Co Slags: The Technical, Economic, and Environmental Aspects" (Commentary), N.L. Piret, August 2000, p. 18.

"Combining Sulfate Electrowinning with Chloride Leaching" (Research Summary), A.W. Fletcher, R.B. Sudderth, and S.M. Olafson, August 1991, pp. 57-59.

"The Commercialization of the FENIX Iron Control System for Purifying Copper Electrowinning Electrolytes" (Overview), D.R. Shaw, D.B. Dreisinger, T. Lancaster, G.D. Richmond, and M. Tomlinson, July 2004, pp. 38-41.

"Control Aspects of the Mitsubishi Continuous Process" (Industrial Insight), M. Goto, E. Oshima, and M. Hayashi, April 1998, pp. 60-63, 65.

"Copper Leaching from Chalcopyrite Concentrates" (Overview), S. Wang, July 2005, pp. 48-51.

"Copper, Nickel, and Cobalt Production: Impurity Control and Removal" (Commentary), V. Ramachandran, July 2004, p. 20.

"Copper-Nickel Superalloys as Inert Alloy Anodes for Aluminum Electrolysis" (Research Summary), Z. Shi, J. Xu, Z. Qiu, B. Gao, and Z. Wang, November 2003, pp. 63-65.

"Copper Recycling: How Trade and the Environment Will Shape the Future" (Opinion), A.B. Silber, February 1997, pp. 38-39.

"Copper Recycling from Waste Pickling Solutions" (1995 Fall Extractive Meeting Preview: Secondary Copper), G.J. Román-Moguel, G. Plascencia, J. Pérez, and A. García, October 1995, pp. 18-19.

"Copper Solvent Extraction: The State of the Art" (Overview), G.A. Kordosky, May 1992, pp. 40-45.

"Correlating Texture and Plastic Anisotropy in Rolled Brass" (Research Summary), J.A. Szpunar and D.C. Hinz, May 1990, pp. 40-43.

"A Correlation-Based Model for Predicting Gas Extraction Performance in a Copper Converting Plant" (Overview), C.B. Solnordal, P.J. Witt, A. Manzoori, H. Namavari, E. Niknejad, and M. Davari, October 2006, pp. 51-55.

"The Cuprex Metal Extraction Process: Recovering Copper from Sulfide Ores" (Overview), R.F. Dalton, G. Diaz, R. Price, and A.D. Zunkel, August 1991, pp. 51-56.

"Current Density Limitation and Diffusion Boundary Layer Calculation Using CFD Method" (Research Summary), A. Filzwieser, K. Hein, and G. Mori, April 2002, pp. 28-31.

"The Design-of-Experiment Optimization and Development of Cobalite Ore Mineral Processing" (Overview), C.G. Anderson, October 2006, pp. 43-46.

"Designing a Noranda Reactor for the Southern Copper Smelter" (Design), R.H. Innis, W.R. Kallio, and P.G. Cooper, December 1992, pp. 30-34.

"Designing Low-Thermal-Expansivity, High-Conductivity Alloys in the Cu-Fe-Ni Ternary System" (Overview), R.D. Cottle, X. Chen, R.K. Jain, Z. Eliezer, L. Rabenberg, and M.E. Fine, June 1998, pp. 67-69.

"The Direct Electrorefining of Copper Matte" (Overview), D.J. McKay, March 1993, pp. 44-48.

"Economic and Environmental Aspects of Producing Copper Chemicals" (Commentary), N.L. Piret, October 1997, pp. 33, 50.

"The Effect of Solution Heat Treatment on a Single-Crystal Ni-Based Superalloy" (Research Summary), B.C. Wilson, J.A. Hickman, and G.E. Fuchs, March 2003, pp. 35-40.

"Electrochemical Processes in Recovering Metals from Ores" (1990 Review of Extractive Metallurgy), D.L. Felker and R.G. Bautista, April 1990, pp. 60-63.

"The Electrowinning of Copper from a Cupric Chloride Solution" (Research Summary), H.K. Lin, X.J. Wu, and P.D. Rao, August 1991, pp. 60-65.

"Enhancing Cobalt Recovery from Primary and Secondary Resources" (Commentary), N.L. Piret, October 1998, pp. 42-43.

"Evaluating and Monitoring Nucleation and Growth in Copper Foil" (Overview), Ye-Kun Lee and Thomas J. O'Keefe, April 2002, pp. 37-41.

"Events and Trends in Metal and Mineral Commodities" (1995 Review of Extraction & Processing), M.C. Munson, April 1995, pp. 54-58.

"Events and Trends in Metal and Mineral Commodities" (1996 Review of Extraction & Processing), T.M. Beazley, April 1996, pp. 45-49.

"Events and Trends in Metal and Minerals Commodities" (Overview), T.M. Beazley, April 1998, pp. 39-42.

"The Evolution of Wrought Age-Hardenable Superalloys" (Overview), R.F. Decker, September 2006, pp. 32-36.

"Expanding the Cobalt Recovery Circuit at the Thompson Nickel Refinery" (Overview), P. Jebbink, R. Stefan, D. Neff, and M. Tomlinson, October 2006, pp. 37-42.

"Forecasting the Cobalt Market through 2015" (Economics), P. Searle, October 1998, pp. 44-45.

"A Freckle Criterion for the Solidification of Superalloys with a Tilted Solidification Front" (Research Summary), W.-H. Yang, J.J. deBarbadillo, K. Morita, T. Suzuki, W. Chen, and K.-M. Chen, September 2004, pp. 56-61.

"Friction and Wear Reduction via an Ni-B Electroless Bath Coating for Metal Alloys" (Industrial Insight), Y.W. Riddle and T.O. Bailer, April 2005, pp. 40-45.

"S-Furnace Roof Modifications at Xstrata Copper, Timmins, Canada" (Overview), A. MacRae and J. Lenz, October 2006, pp. 56-58.

"Future Trends in Key Nickel Alloy Markets" (Conference Review), G.D. Smith, September 2006, pp. 38-39.

"Gold in the Electrorefining of Copper and the Decopperizing of Copper Anode Slimes" (Overview), T.T. Chen and J.E. Dutrizac, August 2004, pp. 48-52.

"The History Channel Looks at the "Modern Marvels" of Heavy Metals"(Materials World), M. Byko, September 2006, pp. 12-15.

"The History of Solid-Solution-Strengthened Ni Alloys for Aqueous Corrosion Service" (Overview), F.G. Hodge, September 2006, pp. 28-31.

"Improving Copper Cathode Production Efficiency: One Company's Experience" (Industrial Insight), K. Abe and F. Shimizu, December 1997, pp. 42-44.

"Improving the Quality of Continuous Copper Rod" (Overview), R. Adams and U. Sinha, May 1990, pp. 31-34.

"Impurity Control and Removal in Copper Tankhouse Operations" (Overview), S. Wang, July 2004, pp. 34-37.

"Industrial Development of Novel Sulfate System for Copper Pyro-Refining" (Research Summary), P. Coursol, N. Stubina, E. Carissimi, M. Zamalloa, and P.J. Mackey, December 2004, pp. 41-45.

"Industrial In-Pulp Co-Ni Alloy Electrowinning at the Gecamines Shituru Plant" (Overview), K. Twite, J.-M. Dereydt, K. Mujinga, and P. Louis, December 1997, pp. 46-48, 58.

"The Industrial Separation of Copper and Arsenic as Sulfides" (Overview), P.J. Gabb and A.L. Davies, September 1999, pp. 1819.

"JOM World Nonferrous Smelters Survey, Part I: Copper" (Industrial Survey), J.P.T. Kapusta, July 2004, pp. 21-27.

"JOM World Nonferrous Smelter Survey, Part II: Platinum Group Metals" (Industrial Survey), R.T. Jones, December 2004, pp. 59-63.

"JOM World Nonferrous Smelter Survey, Part III: Nickel: Laterite" (Industrial Survey), A.E.M. Warner, C.M. Díaz, A.D. Dalvi, P.J. Mackey, and A.V. Tarasov, April 2006, pp. 11-20.

"JOM World Nonferrous Smelter Survery Part IV: Nickel: Sulfide" (Overview), A.E. M. Warner, C.M. Diaz, A.D. Dalvi, P.J. Mackey, A.V. Tarasov, and R.T. Jones, April 2007, pp. 58-72.

"The Kennecott Utah Copper Refinery Modernization" (Overview), K.E. Sutliff, T.I. Probert, and C.T. Unger (Part I) and J.E. Hoffmann, K.E. Sutliff, B.A. Wells, and D.B. George (Part II), August 1996, pp. 42-44.

"The Kinetics and Mechanism of Molten Copper Oxidation by Top Blowing of Oxygen" (Research Summary), T. Marin and T. Utigard, July 2005, pp. 58-62.

"Low-Thermal-Expansion Copper Composites via Negative CTE Metallic Elements" (Design), H. Mavoori and S. Jin, June 1998, pp. 70-72.

"The Magnetic Properties of Beryllium-Copper Alloys" (Forum Feature), J.O. Ratka, February 1991, p. 61.

"Making Improvements in Smelting Capacity at Onsan Copper Smelter" (Industrial Insight), Y.C. Kang and S.S. Park, October 1997, pp. 44-46, 48.

"Metallurgy vs. the Environment: The Case of the Texas Copper Corporation" (Opinion), H.H. Kellogg, August 1993, pp. 32-34.

"Metals Production, Energy, and the Environment, Part I: Energy Consumption" (Featured Overview), K.S. Yoshiki-Gravelsins, J.M. Toguri and R.T.C. Choo, May 1993, pp. 15-20.

"Metals Production, Energy, and the Environment, Part II: Environmental Impact" (Featured Overview), K.S. Yoshiki-Gravelsins, J.M. Toguri, and R.T.C. Choo, August 1993, pp. 23-29.

"The Mineralogy of Copper Electrorefining" (Overview), T.T. Chen and J.E. Dutrizac, August 1990, pp. 39-44.

"Modeling Peirce-Smith Converter Operating Costs" (Overview), K.W. Ng, J.P.T. Kapusta, R. Harris, A.E. Wraith, and R. Parra, July 2005, pp. 52-57.

"Nails from a 2,400 Year Old Shipwreck: A Study of Copper in a Marine Archaeological Environment" (Feature: Archaeotechnology), S. Shalev, Y. Kahanov, and C. Doherty, February 1999, pp. 1417.

"A New, Third-Generation, Single-Crystal, Casting Superalloy" (Overview), G.L. Erickson, April 1995, pp. 36-39.

"Nickel Laterite Technology—Finally a New Dawn?" (Overview), M.G. King, July 2005, pp. 35-39.

"Nitrogen-Atomized, Nickel-Based, Corrosion-Resistant Alloys" (Research Summary), F.J. Rizzo, April 1996, pp. 24-27.

"Optimizing Bismuth Control during Copper Production" (Overview), N.L. Piret, October 1994, pp. 15-18.

"Optimizing the Heat Treatment of Ni-Based Superalloy Turbine Discs" (Applied Technology), D.U. Furrer, R. Shankar, and C. White, March 2003, pp. 32-34.

"The Oxidation Mechanism in Copper Smelting and Converting" (Overview), J.W. Matousek, April 1998, pp. 64-65.

"The Oxidation Resistance of Copper-Aluminum Alloys at Temperatures to 1,000oC" (Research Summary), G. Plascencia, T. Utigard, and T. Marin, January 2005, pp. 80-84.

"Oxygen Pyrometallurgy at Copper Cliff—A Half Century of Progress" (Industrial Insight), P.E. Queneau and S.W. Marcuson, January 1996, pp. 14-21.

"Oxygen Removal from Blister Copper by Copper Oxide Formation" (Research Summary), P. Coursol, B. Davis, A. Roy, and M. Lebel, July 2005, pp. 64-67.

"Pressure Leaching Las Cruces Copper Ore" (Research Summary), R.M. Berezowsky, T. Xue, M.J. Collins, M. Makwana, I. Barton-Jones, M. Southgate, and J.K. MacLean, December, pp. 3639.

"Progress in Electrometallurgy Research and Applications" (1993 Review of Extractive Metallurgy), M.J. Nicol, April 1993, pp. 55-58.

"The Production and Application of Cuprous Oxide and Cupric Hydroxide" (Overview), A. Lossin and F.-J. Westhoff, October 1997, pp. 38-39.

"The Production and Application of Oxygen-Free Copper" (Forum Features), H. Rajainmaki, A. Helenius, and M. Kolehmainen, March 1993, pp. 68-70.

"The Production of Copper in 6th Century Chile's Chuquicamata Mine" (Archaeotechnology), D.R. Fuller, November 2004, pp. 62-66.

"The Production of Ultrahigh-Purity Copper for Advanced Applications" (Overview), M. Kato, December 1995, pp. 44-46.

"The Purification of Copper Refinery Electrolyte" (Overview), J.E. Hoffmann, July 2004, pp. 30-33.

"Pyrometallurgy Near the End of the 20th Century" (Industrial Insight), N.J. Themelis, August 1994, pp. 51-57.

"Recent Advances in the Extraction and Processing of Cu, Ni, and Co" (Commentary), J.P.T. Kapusta, July 2005, p. 34.

"Recovering Cobalt from Primary and Secondary Sources" (Overview), M.J. Hawkins, October 1998, pp. 46-50.

"Recovering Cobalt from Secondary Sources in India" (Overview), R.P. Das, October 1998, pp. 51-52.

"Recovering Copper and Copper Chemicals from Spent Alkaline Etchant" (Overview), T. Kawashima, October 1997, p. 40.

"Recovering Copper from Etchant Waste by Hydrogen Reduction" (Research Summary), C.-W. Won and Y. Kang, February 1997, pp. 41-42.

"Recovering Copper Using a Combination of Electrolytic Cells" (Research Summary), Shijie Wang, June 2002, pp. 51-54.

"Recovering Gold from Copper Concentrate via the HydroCopperTM Process" (Overview), O. Hyvärinen, M. Hämäläinen, P. Lamberg, and J. Lippo, August 2004, pp. 57-59.

"Recovering Iron, Manganese, Copper, Cobalt, and High-Purity Nickel from Sea Nodules" (Research Summary), T. Kohga, M. Imamura, J. Takahashi, N. Tanaka, and T. Nishizawa, December 1995, pp. 40-43.

"Remediating Copper Smelter Dusts: The Arsenic Problem" (Commentary), J.E. Hoffmann, August 1993, pp. 30-31.

"The Removal and Safe Disposal of Arsenic in Copper Processing" (Commentary), N.L. Piret, September 1999, pp. 1617.

"Removing and Stabilizing As from Copper Refining Circuits by Hydrothermal Processing" (Research Summary), A.J. Monhemius and P.M. Swash, September 1999, pp. 3033.

"Removing and Stabilizing As in Acid Mine Water" (Overview), R.W. Lawrence and T.W. Higgs, September 1999, pp. 2729.

"Removing Arsenic from Copper Smelter Gases" (Overview), F. Dalewski, September 1999, pp. 2426.

"Removing As from Converter Dust by a Hydrometallurgical Method"(Research Summary), E. Vircikova and M. Havlik, September 1999, pp. 2023.

"The Rönnskär Smelter Project: Production, Expansion, and Start-up" (Industrial Insight), Ö. Isaksson and T. Lehner, August 2000, pp. 26-29.

"The Segregation of Elements in High-Refractory-Content Single-Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloys" (Research Summary), E.C. Caldwell. F.J. Fela, and G.E. Fuchs, September 2004, pp. 44-48.

"Selecting an Oxygen Plant for a Copper Smelter Modernization" (Industrial Insight), K.H. Larson and R.L. Hutchison, October 1994, pp. 19-21.

"Size Distribution Analysis for Copper Matte Particles Oxidized Under Flash- Converting Conditions" (Research Summary, Manuel Pérez-Tello, José A. Tirado-Ochoa, Hong Yong Sohn, and Víctor M. Sánchez-Corrales, October 2002, pp. 27-30.

"Slag Cleaning: The Chilean Copper Smelter Experience" (Overview), S. Demetrio, J. Ahumada, M.Á. Durán, E. Mast, U. Rojas, J. Sanhueza, P. Reyes, and E. Morales, August 2000, pp. 20-25.

"SO2 Abatement, Energy Conservation, and Productivity at Copper Cliff" (Applied Technology), C.A. Landolt, A. Dutton, J.D. Edwards, and R.N. McDonald, September 1992, pp. 50-55.

"And So It Begins: Introducing the JOM World Nonferrous Smelters Survey" (Commentary), T.P. Battle, July 2004, p. 20.

"The Solubility of Silica in Calcium Ferrite Slags" (JOM-e: Research Summary), C.M. Acuña and A. Yazawa, October 1997.

"Sulfide Smelting Using Ausmelt Technology" (Overview), E.N. Mounsey and K.R. Robilliard, August 1994, pp. 58-60.

"Thermodynamic Considerations in Copper Pyrometallurgy" (1997 Review of Extraction & Processing), R. Sridhar, J.M. Toguri, and S. Simeonov, April 1997, pp. 48-52.

"Tools for Optimizing Cu Electrodeposition: Modeling and Reagent Addition Monitoring" (Commentary), Norbert L. Piret, April 2002, pp. 17-18.

"Top-Blowing, Bottom-Stirring Process for Producing Blister Copper" (Applied Technology), A.W. Marcuson, C. Diaz, and H. Davies, August 1994, pp. 61-64.

"Top-Blown Injection Smelting and Converting: The Mitsubishi Process" (Overview), T. Shibasaki and M. Hayashi, September 1991, pp. 20-26.

"The Toyo Copper Smelter of Sumitomo Metal Mining" (Industrial Insight), K. Baba, October 1997, pp. 41-43, 48.

"Treatment of Copper Ores and Concentrates with Industrial Nitrogen Species Catalyzed Pressure Leaching and Non-Cyanide Precious Metals Recovery" (Overview), C.G. Anderson, April 2003, pp. 32-36.

"The Treatment of Copper Refinery Anode Slimes" (Overview), W.C. Cooper, August 1990, pp. 45-49.

"Understanding the Copper of the Statue of Liberty" (Overview), J.-M. Welter, May 2006, pp. 30-33.

"Using CollaMat to Measure Glue in Copper Electrolyte" (Overview), Peter Stantke, April 2002, pp. 19-21.

"Using Computational Fluid Dynamics to Modify a Waste-Heat Boiler Design" (Overview), Y. Yang, A. Jokilaakso, P. Taskinen, and M. Kytö, May 1999, pp. 3639, 47.

"Using Fractal Structure to Describe Nickel Crystal Morphology" (Research Summary), A.E. Lewis and M. Roberts, February 2003, pp. 59-61.

"Using Polyethylene Glycols as Alternative Inhibitors in Copper Electrorefining" (Research Summary), Michael Stelter, Hartmut Bombach, and Nikolay Nesterov, April 2002, pp. 32-36.

"The U.S. Production of Copper Chemicals from Secondary and By-product Sources" (Overview), P.B. Queneau and R.W. Gruber, October 1997, pp. 34-37, 49.

"Using a Direct-Current Arc Furnace to Recover Cobalt from Slags" (Overview), R.T. Jones and A.C. Deneys, October 1998, pp. 57-61.

"Using Ausmelt Technology for the Recovery of Cobalt from Smelter Slags" (Research Summary), R. Matusewicz and E. Mounsey, October 1998, pp. 53-56.

"Using Carbonate Fluxes to Remove Oxygen and Sulfur from Blister Copper" (Research Summary), P. Coursol and P. Larouche, July 2004, pp. 42-45.

"Using Quality Control to Limit Bismuth in Copper Cathodes" (Overview), J.R. Serrano, D. Berger, and B. Bridges, Jr., October 1994, pp. 12-14.

"A Water-Cooled Hood System for Peirce-Smith Converters and Similar Furnace Vessels" (Overview), W. Drummond and J. Deakin, May 1999, pp. 4041.

"The Wet Chlorination of Electrolytic Refinery Slimes" (Overview), J.E. Hoffmann, August 1990, pp. 50-54.

"Where Has All the Copper Gone: The Stocks and Flows Project, Part 1" (Overview), R.J. Lifset, R.B. Gordon, T.E. Graedel, S. Spatari, and M. Bertram, October 2002, pp. 21-26.

"Winning Copper via Chloride Chemistry—An Elusive Technology" (Commentary), J.E. Hoffmann, August 1991, pp. 48, 49.

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