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Journal of Electronic Materials

The mission of TMS is to promote the global science and engineering professions concerned with minerals, metals, and materials.
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Special Issues

The Journal of Electronic Materials (JEM) is a monthly archival publication that reports on the science and technology of electronic materials, while examining new applications for semiconductors, magnetic alloys, insulators, and optical and display materials. It is published by The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The journal contains peer-reviewed technical papers detailing critical new developments in the electronics field, as well as invited and contributed review papers on topics of current interest.

Many issues of the journal contain the proceedings of symposia held in major conferences sponsored by the TMS Electronic, Magnetic & Photonic Materials Division. Proceedings from the following conferences are available.


2005 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of II-VI Materials
Held September 20-22, 2005 in Cambridge, Massachusetts

  • Meeting Proceedings -- JUNE 2006 ISSUE
    This workshop was the twenty-fourth in a series, which began in October 1981 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The first meeting was dedicated to the scientific and generic technological issues of importance to mercury cadmium telluride and its applications in infrared imaging. The workshop interest has now evolved to include all II-VI materials having applications in a variety of emitters and detectors. Sixty of seventy-two papers presented at the workshop appear in this volume.

47th Electronic Materials Conference
Held June 22-24, 2005 in Santa Barbara, California

Group III Nitrides, SiC, and ZnO— APRIL 2006 ISSUE
For twelve consecutive years, the Journal of Electronic Materials has published a special issue on wide bandgap semiconductors. Initially focused on SiC and the group III nitride semiconductors, the special issue was expanded in 2004 to include ZnO. All of these materials continue to be the focus of worldwide R&D activity. Featuring forty-nine of this year’s presentations, this special issue covered such topics as semiconductor growth, characterization, processing, and devices.

2005 TMS Annual Meeting
Held February 13–15, 2005 in San Francisco, California

  • Frontiers in Thin Film Growth and Nanostructured Materials: A Symposium in Honor of Prof. Jagdish Narayan--MAY 2006 ISSUE
    This symposium was in honor of Prof. Narayan’s 60th birthday. Eleven of the peer-reviewed presentations are included here. A broad range of topics related to fundamental and applied aspects of materials science and engineering has been covered in these papers. The role of defects, dislocations, grains, grain boundaries, and interfaces in relation to a variety of processes for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanodevices have been discussed in these articles.
  • Applications and Fundamentals of High Aspect Ratio Nanomaterials--FEBRUARY 2006 ISSUE
    The applications and fundamental physics and chemistry of high aspect ratio nanomaterials, including nanotubes, nanowires, nanobelts, and nanorods were addressed in this symposium. The papers contained within this edition discuss a synthesis optimization technique for carbon nanotube production, creation of controlled and aligned growth of carbon nanotube arrays, synthesis of low-melting oxide sulfide nanowires and nanobelts, and an assessment of the electrical properties of an ABS composite.
  • Phase Stability, Phase Transformations, and Reactive Phase formation in Electronic Materials IV--JANUARY 2006 ISSUE
    This symposium was the fourth one with the same title held during the TMS Annual Meeting. The symposium featured more than 50 oral presentations from around the world which focused on the stability, transformation, and formation of phases during the fabrication, processing, and utilization of electronic materials and devices. Topics of interest included phase stability issues surrounding microelectronics packaging technology, phase formation and integrated circuit technology, and the phase stability and morphological evolution of novel electronic materials.
  • Microstructures and Textures of Films and Coatings in Electronic Applications--DECEMBER 2005 ISSUE
    The state of the art in characterization, modeling, and fabrication of films and coatings with particular emphasis on refractory metals used in electronic applications was covered in these symposia. From the presentations given during five sessions, twelve papers were accepted for publication in this special issue. Two papers on the structure and integrity of coatings, combined with four papers on the use of refractory metals, and six papers on Cu, Ti/TiN, and other thin films with emphasis on electronic applications have been included in this special issue. These papers give a good overview of topics discussed during the symposia.

2004 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of II-VI Materials
Held October 5–7, 2004 in Chicago, Illinois

  • Meeting Proceedings--JUNE 2005 ISSUE
    This workshop was the twenty-third in a series, which began in October 1981 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The first meeting was dedicated to the scientific and generic technological issues of importance to mercury cadmium telluride and its applications in infrared imaging. The workshop interest has now evolved to include all II-VI materials having applications in a variety of emitters and detectors. Forty-nine of sixty-six papers presented at the workshop appear in this volume.

2004 TMS Annual Meeting
Held March 14–18, 2004 in Charlotte, North Carolina

  • Challenges in Advanced Thin Films: Microstructures, Interfaces, and Reactions--MAY 2005 ISSUE
    This symposium, sponsored by the Thin Films & Interfaces Committee of the TMS Electronic, Magnetic & Photonic Materials Division (EMPMD), and the Materials Science Critical Technology Sector of ASM International, consisted of 35 invited and contributed talks. The topics discussed in the symposium focused on recent developments in modeling, processing, and characterization of thin film deposition techniques, and applications to a variety of materials and device structures. The editors acknowledge with thanks the participation of the symposium attendees, session chairs, contributing authors, and reviewers. They are thankful to Krishna Ravindra, Johns Hopkins University, and to Jessie Appel, Sreeya Sreevatsa, Sudhakar Shet, and Marcus Rabus, New Jersey Institute of Technology, for their assistance in preparing this special issue. The continued support of Dr. Sung-Ho Jin, EMPMD and the University of California at San Diego, Mr. Ted Harman, and Ms. Shirley Litzinger is gratefully acknowledged.

  • Lead-Free Solders and processing Issues Relevant to Microelectronic Packaging--DECEMBER 2004 ISSUE
    The focus of this symposium was on lead-free solders and the issues related to their processing. This symposium addressed several of the materials and manufacturing aspects of alloy development of solders, fundamentals of wetting behavior on a variety of substrate metallizations, and phase evolution. Topics covered also included mechanical properties of both bulk solder and realistic solder joints and the structure-property-processing relationship of lead-free solder’s influence on the reliability of solder joints based on creep-fatigue models. Also covered were lead-free materials at both wafer-level and board-level interconnects with an emphasis on electromigration behavior, interfacial reactions, and intermetallic layer growth both during reflow processing and accelerated aging and in conditions that closely simulated field use. Another salient feature of this symposium was that most of the papers not only addressed issues relating to lead-free solders but also carried baseline comparisons using currently popular lead-based solders. A total of 61 papers were presented at the symposium covering the aforementioned areas. The European Union has set a deadline of July 1, 2006 for the elimination of lead in electronics solder in Europe through the Restrictions on the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS) in Electrical and Electronic Equipment. With this deadline fast approaching, a majority of the papers presented in the symposium concentrated on microstructural evolution and mechanical and reliability aspects of the various lead-free solder alloys with a SAC (Sn-Ag-Cu) alloy being the center of attention. Twenty-three papers presented at the symposium were peer reviewed and accepted for publication in this special issue of the Journal of Electronic Materials (vol. 33, no. 12, December 2004).

  • Nanostructured Magnetic Materials: Recent Progress in Magnetic Nanostructures--NOVEMBER 2004 ISSUE
    This symposium highlighted recent scientific results and technological advances in the field of nanostructured magnetic materials and devices. Special focus was on the fundamental studies of growth, structure, magnetic properties, and spin dynamics with particular emphasis on spintronic devices, GMR materials, and magnetic recording media. More than twenty five papers were presented in this symposium out of which nine papers have been accepted for publication in the special issue of the Journal of Electronic Materials.

  • Phase Stability, Phase Transformations, and Reactive Phase Formation in Electronic Materials III--OCTOBER 2004 ISSUE
    This symposium was the third one with the same title held during the TMS Annual Meeting, and was the largest one ever in terms of the number of the participants. The first one was held in Seattle, WA (2002), and the second in San Diego, CA (2003). Topics of the 52 contributed and invited presentations included interfacial reactions at solder joints, phase transformations in lead-free solders, phase transformations in silicide materials, phase stability of low-k materials, new barrier layers for Cu processes, and phase equilibria in multicomponent semiconductors. This symposium provided an excellent platform for interactive and productive discussions addressing phase stability, phase transformation, and reactive phase formation issues in electronic materials. Twenty-three papers from the presentations were critically peer reviewed and accepted for publication in this special issue of the Journal of Electronic Materials. The organizers are thankful to the TMS Alloy Phase committee for their support, and to all the invited and contributing speakers for their participation.

2003 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of II-VI Materials
Held September 2003 in New Orleans, Louisiana

  • Meeting Proceedings--JUNE 2004 ISSUE
    This workshop was the twenty-second in a series, which began in October 1981, in Minneapolis. The first meeting was dedicated to scientific and generic technological issues of importance to mercury cadmium telluride and its application in infrared imaging. The workshop interest has now evolved to include all II-VI materials having application in a variety of emitters and detectors. Forty-four of 53 papers presented at the workshop appear in this volume.

45th Electronic Materials Conference (EMC)
Held June 25 to 27, 2003 in Salt Lake City, Utah

  • III-V Nitridres and Silicon Carbide--MAY 2004 ISSUE
    Continued advances in III-nitride and SiC semiconductors have led to sustained interest in these wide bandgap semiconducting materials. The importance of these materials is highlighted by the large number of papers on SiC and III-nitrides contributed to the 45th Electronic Materials Conference (EMC), held in 2003 at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. These articles represent original research in epitaxy, characterization, processing, and devices of these important semiconductors. This is the tenth consecutive year for a Special Issue of the Journal of Electronic Materials on SiC and III-nitrides.


2003 TMS Annual Meeting
Held March 2-6, 2003, in San Diego, California

  • Lead-Free Solders and Materials Issues in Microelectronic Packaging Symposium--DECEMBER 2003 ISSUE
    This symposium focused on emerging and established Pb-free solders, metallizations, substrate/solder compatibility, and soldering processes for electronic and optoelectronic packaging and MEMS. More than 50 technical papers were presented on lead-free solders and processes related to microelectronics packaging. Twenty-three papers were accepted for publication in this issue of JEM.

  • Symposium on Phase Stability, Phase Transformations, and Reactive Phase Formation in Electronic Materials--NOVEMBER 2003 ISSUE
    The “Phase Stability, Phase Transformations, and Reactive Phase Formation in Electronic Materials” symposium was held in San Diego, California as part of the 2003 TMS Annual Meeting. Topics of the 50 contributed and invited presentations included phase stability of flip-chip under-bump metallurgy, interfacial reactions at solder joints, phase transformations in lead-free solders during the soldering process, stability of joints in optoelectronics, phase transformations in silicide materials, phase stability of contacts and interconnects in integrated circuits, new barrier layers for Cu processes, multi-component III–V semiconductors, and chemical interactions between electronic materials. This symposium provided an excellent platform for interactive discussion addressing phase stability, phase transformations, and reactive phase formation issues in electronic materials. Twenty-three papers from the presentations are included in this special issue of the Journal of Electronic Materials.

  • Symposium on Materials and Processes for Submicron Technologies III--OCTOBER 2003 ISSUE
    The Symposium on Materials and Processes for Submicron Technologies III, sponsored by the Thin Films & Interfaces Committee of the TMS Electronic, Magnetic & Photonic Materials Division (EMPMD), and Materials Science Critical Technology Sector of ASM International, was the third in a series focusing on advanced research in electronic thin-film materials and processes for microelectronic systems of submicron-size features. With 16 invited and contributed presentations, this symposium provided an interactive forum for multidisciplinary discussions on the science and technology of advanced materials, processes, and devices, and critical reliability issues in microelectronic device fabrication. Twelve of the presentations now appear as archival-quality papers in this special issue.

3rd International Conference on Alternative Substrate Technology (ICAST)
Held September 2002 in Cancun, Mexico

  • Meeting Proceedings--AUGUST 2003 ISSUE
    Dramatic advances in alternative substrate technologies are enabling the heterogeneous integration of technologically important materials that cannot be synthesized by more conventional methods. The 3rd International Conference on Alternative Substrate Technology (ICAST) was held in Cancun, Mexico on 15-19 September 2002 to address problems and solutions critical to the advancement of these substrate technologies. The conference focused on methods and characterization for thin film transfer, wafer bonding, compliant substrates, and nucleation and coalescense of heterostructure materials on nanoscale substrates. The conference also discussed the application of these methods for device fabrication and synthesis of novel materials integration.


2002 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of II-VI Materials
Held November 2002 in San Diego, California

  • Meeting Proceedings--JULY 2003 ISSUE
    This workshop was the twenty-first in a series, which began in October 1981, in Minneapolis. The first meeting was dedicated to scientific and generic technological issues of importance to mercury cadmium telluride and its application in infrared imaging. The workshop interest has now evolved to include all II-VI materials having application in a variety of emitters and detectors. Forty-one of 63 papers presented at the workshop appear in this volume.


44th Electronic Materials Conference (EMC)
Held June 26 to 28, 2002 in Santa Barbara, California

  • III-V Nitrides and Silicon Carbide --MAY 2003 ISSUE
    Continued advances in II-nitride and SiC semiconductors have led to sustained interest in these materials. Evidence of the interest and importance of these topics is represented by the large number of papers on SiC and III-nitrides contributed to the 44th Electronic Materials Conference (EMC), held in 2002 at the University of California at Santa Barbara. A few of those presentations have been developed into papers that are contained in this Special Issue, along with other contributions from these fields for a total number of papers in excess of thirty. These papers represent original research in epitaxy, characterization, processing, and devices of these important wide band-gap semiconductors. This is the ninth consecutive year for a Special Issue of the Journal of Electronic Materials on SiC and III-nitrides.

2002 TMS Annual Meeting
Held February 17-21, 2002, in Seattle, Washington

  • Lead-Free Solders and Materials Issues in Microelectronic Packaging Symposium--NOVEMBER 2002 ISSUE
    The focus of this symposium was on emerging and established lead-free and lead-bearing solders, metallizations (board and component finishes), and various materials issues, including soldering processes for electronic, optical/optoelectronic, and MEMS packaging. With an eye toward the future in environmentally friendly lead-free electronics, a majority of the papers concentrated on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the various viable lead-free solders. Twenty-three of forty-seven papers presented at the symposium appear in this volume.


  • Symposium on Materials and Processes for Submicron Technologies II--OCTOBER 2002 ISSUE
    The Symposium on Materials and Processes for Submicron Technologies II, sponsored by the TMS Electronic, Magnetic & Photonic Materials Division (EMPMD), Thin Films & Interfaces Committee, was held in Seattle, WA from February 17 to February 21, 2001. This symposium was the second in a series devoted to advanced research in thin-film materials and processes for microelectronic systems of submicron-size features.With 25 invited and contributed presentations, this symposium provided an interactive forum for multidisciplinary discussions on the science and technology of advanced materials and processes, and critical reliability issues in microelectronic device fabrication. Topics discussed in this special issue include recent advances in silicon device processing, electromigration reliability studies on damascene Cu interconnects, an in-situ electron microscopy investigation on mechanical properties of nano-scale thin films, fundamental understanding of chemical mechanical planarization, and experimental and simulation studies on thin-film microstructure evolution.


2001 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of II-VI Materials
Held October 2001 in Orlando, Florida

  • Meeting Proceedings--JULY 2002 ISSUE
    This workshop was the twentieth in a series, which began in October 1981, in Minneapolis. The first meeting was dedicated to scientific and generic technological issues of importance to mercury cadmium telluride and its application in infrared imaging. The workshop interest has now evolved to include all II-VI materials including ZnSe-, CdSe-, ZnO-, and ZnSe-based emitters and detectors and DdZnTe-based x-ray and gamma-ray detectors. Thirty-one of forty-seven papers presented at the workshop appear in this volume.


43rd Electronic Materials Conference (EMC)
Held June 27 to 29, 2001 at the University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana

  • Meeting Proceedings--MAY 2002 ISSUE
    Due to the rapid advances in and the technical importance of III-V Nitrides and Silicon Carbide materials and devices, these topics represented one of the largest collection of papers presented at the 43rd Electronic Materials Conference (EMC). There were 53 presentations on III-V Nitrides and 19 presentations on SiC. A selection of those presentations have been developed into papers that are contained in this special issue along with other contributions from these fields for a total of 21 papers. These papers cover the topics of epitaxy, characterization, processing, and device applications. SiC and III-V Nitrides will again be a major emphasis at the 44th EMC to be held from June 26 to 28, 2002, at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
    This is the eighth consecutive year for a special issue of the Journal of Electronic Materials on III-V Nitrides and SiC, and planning has begun for a special issue in 2003.

International Workshop on EBSD Applications to Electronic Materials
Held May 17–18, 2001 at Washington State University in Pullman, Washington

  • Meeting Proceedings--JANUARY 2002 ISSUE
    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and orientation imaging have gained wide popularity among materials researchers over the past decade, because of their ease of use and the wealth of microstructural information that can be obtained. The primary focus of the symposium was microstructure and microtexture effects upon IC interconnect reliability with the majority of the presentations addressing copper systems and structure evolution, barrier layers, processing, or electromigration phenomena.

10th Biennial Workshop on Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy
Held March 11-15, 2001, in San Diego, California

  • Meeting Proceedings--NOVEMBER 2001 ISSUE
    The tenth OMVPE workshop follows the tradition begun at Cornell in 1983, and provided a forum for the exchange of recent scientific and technical knowledge. The technical sessions covered the spectrum from fundamental growth processes to application of OMVPE to growth of devices and circuits. A full session was devoted to safety procedures and advances in safe delivery of high-volume source materials. This special issue presents a number of manuscripts from that workshop.

2001 TMS Annual Meeting
Held February 11-15, 2001, in New Orleans, Louisiana

  • The First Symposium Relating to Materials and Processes for Submicron Technology--DECEMBER 2001 ISSUE
    The first symposium relating to materials and processes for submicron technology sponsored jointly by the TMS Electronic, Magnetic & Photonic Materials Division, Thin Films & Interfaces Committee, ASM International: Materials Science Critical Technology Sector, was held at the 2001 TMS Annual Meeting in New Orleans in February 2001. The talks presented in this symposium focused on issues covering the requirements of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Papers published in this issue reflect a very broad spectrum of problems and challenges posed by silicon device processing and technology as it enters a new phase of computational and functional complexities that are constantly looking for novel applications.

  • Lead-Free Solder Materials and Soldering Technologies--SEPTEMBER 2001 ISSUE
    This symposium was focused on emerging and established lead-free solders, metallizations, and soldering process for electronic and optoelectronic packaging.


2001 International Conference on Alternative Substrate Technology
Held January 22-25, 2001, in Lake Tahoe, California

  • Meeting Proceedings--JULY 2001 ISSUE
    The focus of the conference was to address solutions to critical substrate technologies through novel materials integration, for example, by wafer bonding. This is the second special issue of the Journal of Electronic Materials that addresses the subject, the first following the 1999 ICAST in the July 2000 issue.

2000 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of II-VI Materials
Held October 30-November 2, 2000, in Albuquerque, New Mexico

  • Meeting Proceedings--JUNE 2001 ISSUE
    This workshop was the nineteenth in a series, which began in October 1981, in Minneapolis. The first meeting was dedicated to scientific and generic technological issues of importance to mercury cadmium telluride and its application in infrared imaging. The workshop interest has now evolved to include all II-VI materials including ZnSe-based blue-green light emitters and CdZnTe-based x-ray and g-ray detectors. Forty-one of the sixty-five papers presented appear in this volume.

2000 TMS Fall Meeting
Held October 8-12, 2000, in St. Louis, Missouri

  • Symposium on Advances in Interconnect and Packaging Materials--APRIL 2001 ISSUE
    As high-performance integrated circuits (IC) evolve to the 100 nm generation and beyond, the industry must develop and integrate groups of new interconnect and packaging materials in IC manufacturing. This symposium highlighted some of the recent progress in the materials-related issues of IC interconnects and packaging. The symposium was sponsored by the Thin Film and Interfaces Committee of the Electronic, Photonic and Magnetic Materials Division of TMS.

2000 TMS Annual Meeting
Held March 12-16, 2000, in Nashville, Tennessee

  • Packaging and Soldering Technologies for Electronic Interconnects--OCTOBER 2000 ISSUE
    The intent of the soldering and packaging symposium was to examine the rapid advances in the following areas relevant to interconnections in microelectronics: (a) packaging and soldering technologies, (b) applications of multicomponent phase equilibria in electronic packaging, (c) kinetics of interfacial reaction in solder joints, (d) interfacial reaction and reliability of solder joints, and (e) reliability of bulk solders.

  • Materials Issues in Microelectronics: Optical, Electrical, and Thermal--OCTOBER 2000 ISSUE
    Some of the key intents of this symposium were to examine the state-of-the-art knowledge in the following areas: (a) alpha particle issues in microelectronic packaging and materials, (b) low alpha Pb and applications, and (c) the impact of other materials on microelectronic and optoelectronic packaging. Alpha particle emissions by packaging materials are becoming very important since they can cause soft errors in the chip—a problem that gets worse as feature sizes continue to shrink below 0.15 mm. Higher speeds and smaller chips make the optical and thermal properties of packaging materials even more important.

1999 International Conference on Compliant and Alternative Substrate Technology
Held September 19–23, 1999, in Lake Buena Vista, Florida

  • Meeting Proceedings--JULY 2000 ISSUE
    The focus of this conference was to address the field of semiconductor materials integration using novel substrate technology.

1999 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of II-VI Materials
Held September 22-24, 1999, in Las Vegas, Nevada

  • Meeting Proceedings--JUNE 2000 ISSUE
    This workshop was the eighteenth in a series, which began in October 1981, in Minneapolis. The first meeting was dedicated to scientific and generic technological issues of importance to mercury cadmium telluride and its application in infrared imaging. The workshop interest has now evolved to include all II-VI materials including ZnSe-based blue-green light emitters and CdZnTe-based x-ray and g-ray detectors. Forty-nine of the sixty-three papers presented appear in this volume.

41th Electronic Materials Conference
Held June 30-July 2, 1999, at the University of California-Santa Barbara in Santa Barbara, California

  • III-IV Nitrides and Silicon Carbide--MARCH 2000 ISSUE
    These papers cover the topics of epitaxy, characterization, processing, and device applications. This is the sixth consecutive year for a special issue of the journal to be presented on this subject.

Ninth Biennial Workshop on Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy
Held May 23-27, 1999, at Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida

  • Workshop Proceedings--JANUARY 2000 ISSUE
    The main themes of the papers presented at the meeting were: III-V nitride growth, GaAs, InP, and mid-IR materials and devices, in-situ monitoring, fundamental growth and doping mechanisms, and precursor development. There was also a resurgence of interest in non-planar and selective growth, which is driven largely, by the lack of a lattice-matched substrate for the epitaxial growth of III-nitride materials.


1999 TMS Annual Meeting
Held February 28-March 4, 1999, in San Diego, California

  • Manufacturing Issues in Rapid Thermal Processing--DECEMBER 1999 ISSUE
    The third conference relating to rapid thermal processing sponsored by TMS (EPDMD) was held at the 1999 TMS Annual Meeting. The papers presented in this conference focused on issues covering the requirements as defined by the National Technology Road Map for semiconductors (NTRS). Various topics were discussed including ultra shallow junction formation, temperature uniformity and emissivity independence, the effect of Ultraviolet (UV) and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photons on the minority of carrier lifetime of single crystal silicon, and the requirement for temperature uniformity optimization techniques in GaAs processing.

  • InterconnectPAK: Interconnections for Electronic Packing--NOVEMBER 1999 ISSUE
    The intent of this symposium was to examine the rapid advances relevant to interconnections in microelectronics. Topics included: packaging technology and reliability; alloy, microstructure, and process design for lead-based and lead-free solders; kinetics of interfacial reactions; structure-property relationship and reliability of bulk solders and solder joints; and conductive adhesives.

  • Fatigue and Internal Friction in Miniature Structures and Components--SEPTEMBER 1999 ISSUE
    This symposium dealt with the cyclic loading response of miniature structures such as film, foil, fiber, and (solder) bump. These structures are characterized by high surface-to-volume ratio and are of considerable significance in electronic packaging.

1998 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of II-VI Materials
Held October 20-22, 1998, in Charleston, South Carolina

  • Meeting Proceedings--JUNE 1999 ISSUE
    This workshop was the seventeenth in a series, which began in October 1981, in Minneapolis. The first meeting was dedicated to scientific and generic technological issues of importance to mercury cadmium telluride and its application in infrared imaging. The workshop interest has now evolved to include all II-VI materials including ZnSe-based blue-green light emitters and CdZnTe-based x-ray and g-ray detectors. Forty-seven of the sixty-seven papers presented appear in this volume.

40th Electronic Materials Conference
Held June 24-26, 1998, at University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia

  • III-IV Nitrides and Silicon Carbide--MARCH 1999 ISSUE
    The 40th Electronic Materials Conference provided a forum for topics of epitaxy, characterization, processing, and device applications. Individuals actively engaged or interested in electronic materials research and development are encouraged to attend the EMC meetings.

  • Quantum Dots--MAY 1999 ISSUE
    The recently concluded 40th Electronic Materials Conference saw several papers devoted to quantum dots, many of which appear in this special issue. This is the first special issue of JEM which addresses this rapidly evolving field.

1998 TMS Annual Meeting
Held February 15-19, 1998, in San Antonio, Texas

  • Chemical-Mechanical Planarization--OCTOBER 1998 ISSUE
    Symposia highlights include recent progress in the fundamental materials science based issues governing chemical-mechanical planarization. Chemical-mechanical planarization (or CMP) is a critical technology not only in the microelectronics arena but also other fields such as flat panel display technology, nanomachining, and MEMS to mention just a few. CMP while garnering the interest of many scientists and engineers, still is governed by primarily a phenomenological approach in the research arena. Fundamental issues on the role of materials science in the development of this technology still need to be addressed.

  • Materials Issues in Microelectronics: Interfacial Reactions, Solid State Transformations, and Thermal Management--NOVEMBER 1998 ISSUE
    The metallurgy, manufacturing, and applications of interconnection materials such as solders, wire bonds, lead-frame alloys, and electrically conductive materials play a vital role in the reliability of electronic packages. Of specific importance are interfacial reactions during soldering, joint formation, or field service; solid state transformations related to the microstructure, stability, and reliability of various interconnections; and thermal management, and materials for better thermal conduction. The intent of this symposium was to examine the rapid advances in the above-mentioned areas relevant to microelectronic packaging. Twenty-two papers were presented at the symposium, covering transport properties of silicides and solders, design of bulk solders with improved creep and fatigue resistance, thermodynamics and kinetics of interfacial microstructures in solder joints, thermal management, and strength and reliability of solder joints.


  • Transient Thermal Processing of Electronic Materials--DECEMBER 1998 ISSUE
    The papers presented at the second conference on transient thermal processing focused on issues covering state-of-the-art processing equipment, process control, and optimization, along with metrology. The requirement for elevated temperature processing for the novel III-V compound semiconductors was also discussed. We thank the session chairs, invited speakers and reviewers who contributed to the success of this symposium and the publication of this special issue.

1997 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of II-IV Materials
Held October 21-23, 1997, in Santa Barbara, California

  • Meeting Proceedings--JUNE 1998 ISSUE
    Subject areas discussed at the 1997 workshop span the gamut from bulk crystal growth, aimed at improving substrate quality, to complex multicolor detector structures. Papers from leading experts on epitaxial material growth including growth on silicon substrates, defects and impurities, doping, characterization, device properties, x-ray and Y-ray detectors, and wide-gap II-VI materials. The meeting was attended by more than 140 participants from 12 countries, approximately 20% of the attendees were from outside the U.S. Of the 70 invited and contributed technical presentations, 57 papers appear in this publication. A retrospective review from Professor William E. Spicer provides an account of the expectations and achievements of the early MCT workshop.

39th Electronic Materials Conference
Held June 25-27, 1997, at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

  • III-IV Nitrides and Silicon Carbide--APRIL 1998 ISSUE
    The 39th Electronic Materials Conference provided a forum for topics of current interest and significance on the areas of preparation and characterization of electronic materials. Individuals actively engaged or interested in electronic materials research and development are encouraged to attend the EMC meetings.

Eighth Biennial Workshop on Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy
Held April 13-17, 1997, at Dana Point, California

  • Workshop Proceedings--OCTOBER 1997 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    This workshop featured ten oral sessions and one poster session, with a total of 84 papers being presented. There were three sessions on nitrides; two on in-situ monitoring; two on quantum structures; and one each on chemistry and modeling, growth mechanisms and ordering, and selective area epitaxy. Papers in all of these areas appear in this issue.

1997 TMS Annual Meeting
Held February 9-13, 1997, in Orlando, Florida

  • Evolution and Advanced Characterization of Thin Film Microstructures--SEPTEMBER 1997 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    The primary goal of the symposium was to understand and characterize thin film processes. Several fundamental elements of thin film technology were highlighted: nucleation and growth, stresses and mechanical properties, evolution of microstructure, and morphology.


  • Symposium on Low Energy Processes in Electronic Materials--NOVEMBER 1997 ISSUE
    Low energy beam processes play an integral role in electronic materials processing. A wide variety of sources (e.g., ECR, rf, lasers, low energy ion beams, lamps, etc.) are being employed to generate low energy ionic and activated non-equilibrium species. These species are used to fabricate new materials, dope and etch various materials. This symposium was intended to explore the various low energy processes currently applied in electronic materials processing. Thirty papers were presented at the symposium covering fabrication and processing of cBN, II-VI, and III-V compound semiconductors and diamond using low energy sources. A selection of 20 papers presented at the symposium is included in this issue of JEM.

1996 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of II-IV Materials
Held October 22-24, 1996, in Las Vegas, Nevada

  • Meeting Proceedings--JUNE 1997 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    Subject areas discussed at the workshop include epitaxial material growth, defects and impurities, doping, characterization, device properties, x-ray and gamma-ray detectors, blue-light-emitters and photo-refractivity. The meeting was attended by more than 160 participants from 16 countries. Of the 61 invited and contributed presentations, 50 papers appear in this publication. The credit for this successful endeavor goes to the authors and the referees for their careful and prompt review of the manuscripts.

Materials Week '96
Held October 6-10, 1996, in Cincinnati, Ohio

  • Creep and Stress Relaxation in Miniature Structures--JULY 1997 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    This symposium dealt with the time-dependent deformation of miniature structures: film, foil, fiber, (solder) bump. These structures, of considerable significance in electronic packaging, are characterized by high surface to volume ratio, very fine scaled microstructure, and substantial interface (substrate and multi-layer) effects. Their mechanical response differs significantly from those of bulk materials of identical composition. The long-term deformation and ultimate rupture or failure (which become a serious liability hazard) of these structures are examined.

38th Electronic Materials Conference
Held June 26-28, 1996, at the University of California, Santa Barbara

  • III-V Nitrides and Silicon Carbide--MARCH 1997 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    There were 29 presentations on III-V nitrides and 18 presentations on SiC. A few of those presentations have been developed into papers that are contained in this special issue for a total of 41 papers. These papers cover the topics of epitaxy, characterization, processing, and device applications.

1996 TMS Annual Meeting
Held February 4-8, 1996, at the Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, California

  • Materials Science of Contacts, Metallization and Interconnects--NOVEMBER 1996 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    The primary goal of the symposium was to address needs and opportunities in the area of contacts, metallization and interconnects for elemental and compound semiconductors and high-temperature superconductors. Special emphasis was placed upon contacts on elemental and compound semiconductors including III-V nitrides.


  • Engineering Science of Chemical-Mechanical Planarization--OCTOBER 1996 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    This symposium was sponsored by the Thin Film and Interfaces Committee and was the first in a new series of symposia sponsored by the Electronic, Magnetics & Photonics Materials Division of TMS on "Emerging Technologies." The purpose of this new genre of meetings is to provide a means of discussing rapidly emerging technologies which are yet to develop into a level of maturity and bring it to the attention of the scientific community. This will help promote further scientific activity in the field.

1995 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of Mercury Cadmium Telluride and Other IR Materials
Held October 10-12, 1995, at the Sheraton Inner Harbor Hotel, Baltimore, Maryland

  • Meeting Proceedings--AUGUST 1996 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    Subject areas discussed at the workshop include substrate technology, epitaxial material growth and manufacturing issues, defects and impurities, doping during epitaxy, electrical and optical characterization, device processing and x-ray and gamma-ray detectors for a total of 46 papers.

37th Electronic Materials Conference
Held June 21-23, 1995, at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia

  • Symposium on III-V Nitrides and Silicon Carbide--MAY 1996 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    Because of the rapid advances in and technical importance of SiC and III-V nitride materials and devices, these topics represent the largest component of the 37th EMC. There were 22 presentations on III-V nitrides and ten on SiC. A few of these presentations have been developed into the papers that are contained in this special issue in addition to other contributions from these fields for a total of 23 papers. Covered are epitaxy, characterization, processing, and device applications.


  • Symposium on II-VI Heterostructures for Short Wavelength Emitters--FEBRUARY 1996 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    Included in this issue are 16 of the papers on II-VI heterostructures for short wavelength emitters.

7th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM '95)
Held May 9-13, 1995, at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan

7th Biennial Workshop on Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy
Held April 2-6, 1995, at Sanibel Harbour Resort in Ft. Myers, Florida

  • Meeting Proceedings--NOVEMBER 1995 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    Featuring 70 papers, this special issue covers III-N and III-Sb semiconductors, which have applications in displays, storage, high-temperature electronics, and mid-infrared optoelectronics. Other topics include doping, in-situ measurements, growth mechanisms, CBE, ALE, heterostructures, electronic and optoelectronic devices, and patterned growth.

1995 TMS Annual Meeting
Held February 12-16, 1995, at the Las Vegas Convention Center in Las Vegas, Nevada

  • Symposium on Ion Beam and Laser Processing of Materials--JANUARY 1996 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    Ion and laser beams are employed in a wide variety of materials, ranging from doping, surface modification, and film synthesis, to the development of new materials. This proceedings details a wide variety of related issues, including ultra-shallow junction formation and the ion-beam synthesis of thin films. In the area of laser processing, special emphasis is given to hard materials such as diamond, diamond-like carbon, and carbon nitride thin films.


  • Symposium on the Synthesis, Processing, and Large-Scale Applications of High Temperature Superconductors--DECEMBER 1995 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    Topics covered here include processing for high critical current densities, the development of flux-pinning centers, processing for thin-film deposition, phase relations, pathways to new superconductors, stoichiometry, the effects of strain, processing/microstructure relationships, and prototype products for practical applications.

1994 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of Mercury Cadmium Telluride and Other IR Materials
Held October 4-6, 1994, at the Hyatt Regency Hill Country Resort in San Antonio, Texas

  • Meeting Proceedings--SEPTEMBER 1995 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    Featuring 43 papers, this issue covers substrate technology, epitaxial material growth, surface and interface properties, defects, and electrical and non contact optical characterization.

1994 TMS Fall Meeting
Held October 2-6, 1994, at the Hyatt Regency O'Hare in Rosemont, Illinois

  • Symposium on Defect Structure, Morphology and Properties of Deposits--AUGUST 1995 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    Eight papers are included on crystalline, nanostructured, and amorphous deposits of metals, alloys, and composites prepared by the electrochemical, chemical (electroless), and vapor deposition techniques.

36th Electronic Materials Conference
Held June 22-24, 1994, at the University of Colorado in Boulder, Colorado

  • Symposium on III-V Nitrides and Silicon Carbide--APRIL 1995 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    Because of the rapid advances in and technical importance of SiC and III-V nitride materials and devices, these topics represent the largest component of the 36th EMC. Hence, there were two sessions at the conference with 17 presentations. A few of these presentations have been developed into the papers that are contained in this special issue in addition to other contributions from these fields for a total of 17 papers. Covered are epitaxy, characterization, processing, and device applications.


  • Symposium on Short Wavelength Optical Sources Based on Wide Bandgap II-VI Heterostructures--MARCH 1995 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    Presenting information directed toward achieving long-lived, blue/green light emitters based on the zinc-chalcogenide material family, this edition is the third in a series of journal issues on the subject. Technological advances reported include the molecular beam epitaxy of the (Zn, Mg) (S, Se) quaternary alloys, the p-type doping using the nitrogen plasma source, the bandgap engineering of very sophisticated quantum well hetero-structures necessary to provide optical and electronic confinement, the use of a graded Zn (Se,Te) multilayered structure to form an ohmic contact to the p-type ZnSe layers, and advances in the proper formation of the II-VI/III-V heterovalent interface consisting primarily of ZnSe/GaAs.

1994 TMS Annual Meeting
Held February 27-March 3, 1994, at the Moscone Convention Center in San Francisco, California

  • Symposium on High Temperature Superconductors--NOVEMBER 1994 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    Featuring 18 papers from this four-session symposium, the issue's coverage includes compound structure and critical current density, phase equilibria, and issues in processing and properties.


  • Symposium on the Development of Microstructure in Deposited Thin Films--OCTOBER 1994 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    Topics include phase formation, microstructural evolution, microstructural coarsening, and novel characterization techniques. Films from all classes of materials are represented: metals, ceramics, and superconductors.


  • Symposium on Lead Free Solder--AUGUST 1994 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    This proceedings covers a broad spectrum of existing and new lead-free solders and deals with various issues including raw materials availability, toxicity, metallurgical reactions, alloy microstructure, properties, manufacturability, and reliability. This issue should serve as a stimulating and valuable source of information to the scientific and technological community interested in electronic packaging.

1993 U.S. Workshop on the Physics and Chemistry of Mercury Cadmium Telluride and Other IR Materials
Held October 29-31, 1993, at the Hyatt Regency Hill Country Resort in San Antonio, Texas

  • Meeting Proceedings--MAY 1995 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    Featuring 40 of the 58 papers presented at the workshop, this issue covers material growth process, bulk and thin-film substrates, defects, III-V materials, diffusion, devices, and optical characterization.

1993 TMS Fall Meeting
Held October 17-21, 1993, at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

  • Symposium on the Metallurgy of the Less Common Metals and the Emerging of New Applications--JULY 1994 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    The less common metals (Ga, In, Tl, Ge, Sn, As, Sb, Bi, Se, and Te) are not abundant in nature. They are produced as by-products during the extraction and smelting of the primary metals (Cu, Sn, Pb, Zn). However, the less common metals form technologically important alloy systems and intermetallics. The intent of this symposium was to explore the material science aspects and the emerging applications of these metals and their alloys. The selection of papers included in this issue covers resources, emerging uses, phase equilibria and separation, melting behavior, solidification, microstructures, interaction kinetics, mechanical properties, ordering in epitaxial layers, device fabrication, and the nanoscale engineering of interfaces.

35th Electronic Materials Conference
Held June 23-25, 1993, at the University of California, Santa Barbara in Santa Barbara, California

  • Symposium on Wide Bandgap II-VI Semiconductors for Blue/Green Light Emitters--MARCH 1994 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department)
    This issue is the second special issue in a series highlighting the significant advances which are occurring in the area of wide bandgap II-VI semiconductor materials. A report by the 3M Company in 1991 cited the first fabrication of blue/green pn injection lasers composed of the ZnSe-based material family, and resulted in re-energizing the worldwide II-VI effort. The session documented here was organized to focus on wide bandgap II-VI materials, and approximately 22 contributions from a variety of countries were received. Addressed are key topics relative to the II-VIs, such as methods to utilize nitrogen for p-type doping and induce negligible compensation, fabrication and design of blue/green injection lasers, employment of bandgap engineering ideas to enable the formation of ohmic contacts, and the transport properties of these new optical devices.

1993 TMS Annual Meeting
Held February 21-25, 1993, at the Colorado Convention Center in Denver, Colorado

  • Symposium on the Synthesis and Processing of Electronic Materials--SEPTEMBER 1994 ISSUE (Available through TMS Customer Service Department) Besides the development of various processing techniques, the understanding of microstructure development is extremely important for device development. Physical vapor deposition techniques are presently being used to deposit elemental thin films or multicomponent thin films of novel materials like superconductors, oxides, dielectrics, etc. The microstructure development of these films, especially grain growth processes are particularly important for optimization of their electrical properties. Two critical issues related to microstructural evolution in thin films addressed in this issue are modeling microstructural evolution during vapor deposition and anisotropic grain growth during post deposition annealing in noncubic systems.
 
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Direct questions to publications@tms.org.