Nanomechanical Materials Behavior Committee

Technical Programming

2022 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: 30 Years of Nanoindentation with the Oliver-Pharr Method and Beyond: Organized by Verena Maier-Kiener; Benoit Merle; Erik Herbert; Samantha Lawrence; Nigel Jennett

The origin of nanoindentation can be traced to the 1980s with the development of the first instrumented hardness testers providing submicrometer accuracy. However, it took the 1992 seminal publication by W.C. Oliver and G.M. Pharr to effectively launch the field. Their novel data evaluation procedure, later dubbed the “Oliver-Pharr method”, has directly enabled numerous transformative research efforts in a diverse range of fields spanning materials science, geology, biology and medicine. Up to now, it remains indispensable for ensuring the service performance and lifetime of essential small components, such as thin films and coatings, electronic sensors and MEMS. This symposium aims at bringing together the different generations of researchers, as well as the different fields and applications. It will highlight the amazing range of applications and the robustness of the Oliver-Pharr method. A mixture of well-established invited speakers and promising younger researchers will address how everything started, how nanoindentation is currently used, and what the future of small-scale mechanical testing might look like. Topics of interest: • General aspects of nanoindentation including historical background • Nanoindentation in-method development, standardization • New approaches towards data science • Dynamic nanoindentation (CSM, CMX, dynamics….) • Refinements in understanding • Indentation Size Effects • Thermally activated deformation behavior • Extreme testing environments, e.g. high and low temperatures, irradiation, electrochemical or high strain rates • Complex loading conditions, such as cyclic fatigue, fracture testing • In-situ testing in SEM, TEM or synchrotron • Stress-strain measurements, e.g. from spherical nanoindentation • Structural and functional materials; thin films, metals, ceramics, amorphous & crystalline • Soft and viscoelastic materials behavior

2022 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Additive Manufacturing: Nano/Micro-mechanics and Length-Scale Phenomena: Organized by Meysam Haghshenas; Robert Lancaster; Andrew Birnbaum; Jordan Weaver; Aeriel Murphy-Leonard

Additive manufacturing technologies enable microstructure and hence, mechanical properties to be tailored locally through careful selection of processing parameters and strategies. The characterization of mechanical properties behavior at both the micro- and nano-scales is critical for the fundamental understanding of relationships between processing, structure, and properties. This includes the elastic-plastic response, residual stresses, creep and relaxation properties, fracture toughness, and fatigue in local scales in additively manufactured materials. This symposium focuses on the properties of various additively manufactured materials (metals, ceramics, polymers, biological/ bio-inspired materials, composites) at small length-scales from both theoretical/modeling and experimental viewpoints. The scope includes, but not limited to, the following areas: • Microstructure-micromechanics relationships of additive manufactured materials • Location-specific property characterization in additive manufacturing through micro/nano-indentation testing • In-situ nanomechanical measurements in application environments (thermal, electrical, electrochemical, and biological stimuli) • Small scale quasi-static tests (tension, compression, bending, and torsional tests) • Small scale fatigue, creep, and impact tests • Nano-scale measurements of strain and stress • Micromechanics-based modeling in additive manufacturing

2022 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Advanced Characterization and Modeling of Nuclear Fuels: Microstructure, Thermo-physical Properties: Organized by David Frazer; Fabiola Cappia; Tsvetoslav Pavlov; Peter Hosemann

Evaluating the evolution of nuclear fuel during reactor operation is essential to foster the scientific understanding of fuel behavior. This can provide the data needed to enhance the burn-up of current fuels, enable the use of new accident tolerant fuel forms and metallic fuels. With this research motivation many research facilities worldwide have developed their ability to characterize fresh and irradiated fuels utilizing advanced electron microscopy and thermal characterization techniques. The application of these techniques has led to fuels being studied before and after service providing new knowledge and ideas to enhance burnup and fuel utilization or investigate new fuel forms. In addition, these tools have been applied to evaluate the movement of fission products and further the understanding of the fuel clad chemical interactions and are now ready to be deployed in other fields of research as well. In parallel, model development and implementation of the data generated with advanced techniques in physics-based models for fuel performance codes is becoming increasingly important, both for current fuel burnup extension and advanced fuel development. This symposium aims to take a closer look at the evolution of the microstructure and thermo-physical properties of nuclear fuels during service, including the interaction region between fuel and cladding. Correspondingly, the synergy with materials modeling in advancing and understanding fuels performance under normal and accident conditions will be considered in the symposium. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: Scanning electron microscopy characterization of nuclear fuels and its associated techniques such as Energy dispersive spectroscopy and Wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Electron backscatter diffraction Transmission electron microscopy characterization of nuclear fuels 3D reconstructions of electron backscatter diffraction or scanning election microscopy images of nuclear fuels Thermo-physical property measurements of both fresh and irradiated nuclear fuels Modeling of nuclear fuel behavior during operation

2022 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Mechanical Behavior at the Nanoscale VI: Organized by Matthew Daly; Douglas Stauffer; Wei Gao; Changhong Cao; Mohsen Asle Zaeem

The mechanical behavior of materials emerges from the aggregate operation of competing deformation mechanisms that initiate at the nanoscale. Small-scale mechanics investigations therefore provide critical insights into the fundamentals of deformation phenomena and form a basis for scaling theories. Additionally, the reduction of organizational scale often yields new deformation mechanisms and mechanical behaviors that are not present in bulk materials. This symposium will focus on the deformation behavior of nanostructured materials. A wide variety of nanostructured materials are considered within this scope including low-dimensional and 2D materials, multilayers, nanoarchitectured materials and nanolattices, and bulk nanocrystalline aggregates. Studies that examine size effects and scaling laws, new nanoscale deformation phenomena, emerging methods in nanomechanical characterization, and developments in modeling techniques are welcomed. Topics will include: • Size effects on elastic properties, strength, plasticity, fracture mechanisms, adhesion, tribology and fatigue behavior in small-volume and low-dimensional systems including nanopillars, nanowires, nanoparticles, nanostructured fibers, 2D materials, thin films, multilayered materials, and nanolattices • New nanoscale deformation phenomena in emerging materials and materials systems including concentrated multi-component solutions (e.g. high entropy alloys), complex alloys, 2D materials, nanotwinned materials, and nanoarchitectured systems • Transitions in deformation mechanisms due to scaling effects such as activation of interface-mediated mechanisms, exhaustion of deformation sources, and size effects on strain-induced phase transformations • Developments in ex situ and in situ (SEM, TEM, synchrotron, neutron, etc.) techniques that push the limits of nanomechanical characterization (e.g. for extreme conditions such as high temperatures and/or high strain rates) • Modeling and simulation of deformation processes and mechanical properties at the nanoscale, including coupling to meso/microscale methods

2022 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Nix Award and Lecture Symposium: Recent Advances in Nanoindentation and Small-Scale Mechanical Testing (Invited Abstracts Only): Organized by Wendelin Wright; Gang Feng

This symposium will highlight recent advances in nanoindentation and related small-scale mechanical testing methods that have enhanced our fundamental understanding of the deformation mechanisms that underpin the mechanical behavior of macro-, micro-, and nanoscale materials. Presentations will include studies of new testing systems and methods and their application in the study of fundamental processes that control mechanical behavior at the nano- and micro- scales. Efforts to characterize, understand, and predict the mechanical behavior across length scales will be emphasized. This award symposium was established to honor Professor William D. Nix and the tremendous legacy that he has developed and shared with the minerals, metals, and materials community and to highlight and promote continued progress and innovation relevant to research into the underlying mechanisms and mechanical behavior of macro-, micro-, and nanoscale materials. Professor Nix's seminal paper with M.F. Doerner in 1986 set the stage for the development of nanoindentation as a primary enabling tool in this important area of research. Professor Nix’s research and seminal contributions to structural materials, thin films, and nanoscale plasticity have had significant impact on critical U.S. industries, spawned new fields of study, and motivated generations of researchers working in fields that span from aerospace to microelectronics. Breakthroughs in technologies for these critical industries depend heavily on the availability of advanced materials that can be engineered and optimized at the nanoscale. Professor Nix’s groundbreaking contributions have allowed us to characterize, understand, and predict the mechanical behavior and reliability of such materials and have been critical enablers of these key technologies.

2021 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: 100 Years and Still Cracking: A Griffith Fracture Symposium: Organized by Megan Cordill; William Gerberich; David Bahr; Christopher Schuh; Daniel Kiener; Neville Moody; Nathan Mara; Erica Lilleodden

While today’s materials scientists know the Griffith criteria and its eventual impact on basic research, many may not be aware on how little impact it initially had on basic and applied research. Particularly, there was little academic instruction, and industry relied on the Charpy V-notch test as a standard. One could tell the impact by examining Timoshenkso’s 1941 book. Here it was mentioned that Griffith admitting that “very fine scratches on glass do not produce a weakening effect was because there were internal defects in the glass with just as high a stress concentration factor.” Following Timoshenko was Nadai’s 1951 book which demonstrated some advances in experimental insight, as electron microscopy and sophisticated test systems for fracture analysis were in their infancy. It was not until the rapid advances in aerospace and aeronuatics in the late 50’s that basic research was able to widely take advantage of the Griffith methodology at large research enterprises and establish the ASTM E-24 fracture toughness standard. While this was largely a response to needing improved aircraft and “deeper” space probes, it provided all engineering and basic science an order of magnitude increase in sophistication. In recognition of the importance of Griffith’s work on the materials community, this symposium will provide researchers the opportunity to provide of fundamental and practical advances in fracture, with a focus on small scales, dynamics, expanded temperature and time, and imaging advances, and to provide historical context to their current work. The subject areas of the symposium include, but are not limited to: • Local analysis of stress and strain around crack tips • Fracture of nanostructured materials (thin films, printed structures, nanocrystalline materials, …) • Size effects on fracture behavior • New developments in fracture testing techniques using coupled in-situ measurements (electrical, optical, mechanical, etc.) or in enhanced environments (high temperatures, humidity controlled, etc.) • Atomistic and finite element modelling of fracture • Brittle fracture in heterogeneous materials • Strategies to avoid brittle fracture • Interface and grain boundary fracture

2021 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Mechanical Behavior of Nuclear Reactor Components: Organized by Clarissa Yablinsky; Assel Aitkaliyeva; Eda Aydogan; Laurent Capolungo; Khalid Hattar; Kayla Yano; Caleb Massey

Current and future generation nuclear reactors require improved structural materials that improve efficiency during in-service conditions, allow for long reactor lifetimes, and increase safety during accidents. Given the increasingly large number of reactor design being considered (e.g. fusion, molten salt, LWRs, etc.), a series of distinct material concepts have been proposed to address these needs. Effects of reactor environments on mechanical behavior will be a key component to predicting strength and performance of materials in the aforementioned circumstances. This symposium aims to take a closer look at the mechanical behavior of reactor components across length scales. With recent advancements and increased use of in-situ techniques, more is known about irradiation effects on strength than ever before. Simultaneously, ex-situ techniques are critical to probe component-sized parts, and validate the use of a material for inclusion within a reactor. Furthermore, synergy with materials modeling is advancing the prediction of material performance under normal and accident conditions, as well as reactor lifetimes. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to: • Mechanical behavior testing, including tension, compression, bend, bulge, creep, fatigue, and fracture • Effects of environment on strength, including dose, dose rate, temperature, and corrosion • Hardness testing, including nanohardness and microhardness • Development of microstructure sensitive material strength models • Modeling and simulation of irradiation defect interactions during mechanical testing • Macroscopic component modeling for full scale performance • In-situ mechanical testing, including micromechanical and nanomechanical compression and tension • Novel techniques to probe material strength under reactor conditions

2020 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Mechanical Behavior at the Nanoscale V: Organized by Christopher Weinberger; Megan Cordill; Garritt Tucker; Wendy Gu; Scott Mao; Yu Zou

Understanding the mechanics of materials in small volumes is of fundamental importance because it simultaneously allows for the exploration of new properties at the smallest of length scales as well as provides a basis for understanding multiscale phenomena that originate at these length scales acknowledging an interplay between size and properties. This symposium will focus on the mechanical properties of small-volume and low-dimensional materials, as well as bulk materials that are comprised of or are aggregates of these materials including bulk nanostructured materials and nanoscale based hierarchical materials. Studies that discuss sample size effects, changes in mechanical properties at the nanoscale, applications of nanoscale mechanical testing and the associated characterization, as well as modeling that addresses the mechanical properties of these materials are welcome. Properties of interest include, but are not limited to: elasticity, strength, plastic flow, fatigue, and fracture. Topics will include: •Size effects on elasticity, strength, plastic flow, fracture and fatigue in low dimensional materials including nanopillars, nanowires, nanoparticles, thin films, multilayered materials, graded materials, and architecture-designed materials. •Changes in deformation types or patterns due to changes in scale including those due to size affected phase transformations, changes in density and types of interfaces, as well as available deformation sources. •Nanomechanical testing of emerging materials, including high-entropy alloys, complex metallic alloys, nano-twinned metals, for understanding their bulk properties. •Ex-situ and in-situ (SEM, TEM, XRD, neutron, etc.) mechanical characterization methods. •Modeling and simulation at all scales, as well as coupled scale modeling, of mechanical behavior of nanostructured materials

2019 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Fracture Processes of Thin Films and Nanomaterials: Organized by Daniel Kiener; Megan Cordill; Johannes Ast; Brad Boyce

This symposium will focus on recent developments in the field of fracture of thin films and small volumes, focusing on the uncovering the mechanisms responsible for improved properties. Such novel insights are enabled by advanced testing technologies paired with comprehensive characterization at the nanoscale and a suited fracture-mechanical analysis. With the wide variety of applications (semiconductors, printed electronics, energy storage, protective coatings, etc.) and the required control of structural and functional properties, a better understanding of the relationship between processing, microstructures, and failure mechanisms is required to design more robust and reliable devices and structures for use in any environment. The deformation characteristics of thin films and small volumes have been explored for years using different in-situ and ex-situ techniques (nanoindentation, TEM, SEM, micro-XRD, etc). However, the need for examination of local fracture processes calls for dedicated testing techniques that permit high temporal and local resolution of structural and mechanical properties, ideally coupled with measurements of electrical or thermal characteristics under applied load. Furthermore, the enhanced understanding of the impact of interface design on fracture in thin films and nanostructured materials is of interest. The combination of advanced testing techniques with adapted fracture mechanics evaluation concepts will enable a safe design of future components based on thin films and small volumes. The subject areas of the symposium include, but are not limited to: • Local analysis of stress and strain around crack tips • Fracture of nanostructured materials (thin films, printed structures, nanocrystalline materials, …) • Developments in nanoporous materials for energy harvesting or storage applications • Fracture concepts to analyze miniaturized volumes and bridge scales to macroscopic properties • New developments in fracture testing techniques using coupled in-situ measurements (electrical, optical, mechanical, etc.) or in enhanced environments (high temperatures, humidity controlled, etc.) A joined session on fracture in harsh environments (symposium ‘Micro- and nanomechanical testing in harsh environments’) is planned.

2019 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Mechanical Behavior Related to Interface Physics III: Organized by Jason Trelewicz; Nathan Mara; Erica Lilleodden; Siddhartha Pathak; Jordan Weaver; Marc Legros

Interfaces constitute a key microstructural variable for tuning materials behavior across a wide range of length scales from nano to macro in single and multiphase systems. The advent of novel multi-phase/multi-interface nanomaterials holds great potential for enabling unparalleled performance under coupled extremes. Interfaces often dominate the material response in nanostructured systems and produce unique combinations of properties that derive from the physics of grain boundaries, phase boundaries, and/or surfaces. A fundamental understanding of interfacial physics and coupled phenomena impacting mechanical behavior is thus needed to harness new concepts and methodologies in interface design for multifunctional performance. This symposium aims to discuss interface physics that govern mechanical behavior and coupled phenomena in interfacially-driven multifunctionality in both single and multiphase materials. Talks are solicited that cover fabrication, characterization, and modeling of materials with deliberately designed interfaces with particular emphasis on new insights into fundamental mechanisms, analysis of defects, and their implications for multifunctional performance. Abstracts on recent developments in mechanical testing techniques (e.g., in situ straining in TEM, micropillar testing, etc) and in high-fidelity modeling techniques (e.g., ab initio, molecular dynamics, etc) are also solicited. Topics of interest include, but are not necessarily limited to: -Influence of interface structure and chemistry on deformation mechanisms -Mechanical behavior of low dimensional materials (e.g., thin films, nanowires, nanotubes, and nanoparticles) -Physics of phase boundaries in multiphase systems, such as crystalline-amorphous composites, nanolaminates, nanoparticle/matrix composites, and nanoporous materials -Mechanical behavior of grain boundary engineered nanomaterials (e.g. solute stabilization, grain boundary complexion formation, duplex and gradient nanostructures) -Micro, meso, and macroscale modeling of deformation processes and coupled phenomena as they relate to interface physics -In situ testing methodologies for investigating mechanical behavior and coupled extremes such as mechanical and irradiation of small volumes of material

2019 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Micro- and Nanomechanical Testing in Harsh Environments: Organized by Verena Maier-Kiener; Sandra Korte-Kerzel; Peter Hosemann; Afrooz Barnoush; Jeffrey Wheeler; Dhriti Bhattacharyya

Most materials are exposed to an environment different than that found in laboratory conditions, and it has been recognized that a material’s properties change based on the environment to which it is exposed. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which a material’s properties change in harsh environments (e.g. high and low temperatures, high strain rate deformation, and corrosive agents) and under non-ambient conditions is key to understanding materials behavior in service conditions. Micro- and nanoscale materials testing has been often utilized for a deeper understanding of the basic phenomena of materials degradation and behavior. An obvious next step is to expand these valuable measurements to the environments that materials are exposed to during service conditions in order to study the synergistic effects between harsh environments and materials property degradation on the nanoscale. The harsh environments materials experience can have a direct impact on the performance of nano-devices and nano-enabled energy systems in many different applications. Topics include: - Nanoindentation and micromechanical testing at non-ambient conditions - Small scale mechanical behavior under harsh environments and/or dynamic loading conditions - New approaches for reliable testing at elevated and low temperatures - Accelerated testing techniques - In-situ electrochemical loading during micromechanical testing

2018 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Fracture: 65 Years after the Weibull Distribution and the Williams Singularity: Organized by Brad Boyce; Ellen Cerreta; Jacob Hochhalter; Jonathan Zimmerman

In 1951, Waloddi Weibull published a single-author paper describing a new statistical distribution “of wide applicability” in the Journal of Applied Mechanics. The very next year in the same journal, Max Williams published a single-author paper describing an analytic stress singularity that has become the foundation of linear elastic fracture mechanics. The Weibull distribution provides a stress-based method for assessing the statistics of failure whereas the Williams singularity provides a deterministic description of the stress field at a crack tip that drives fracture. While the two approaches are quite different, they both continue to be profoundly useful for engineering design. The symposium will focus on application of these methods to materials science, the limitations of these methods and nuance that has been unearthed after 65 years of use. How have these methods assisted in the development of improved engineering materials and more reliable engineered structures? What recent analysis methods for material failure might have a similar impact 65 years from now? Why is recent research not as readily adopted by broad engineering practice? What are the current generational challenges in fracture and material failure?

2018 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Mechanical Behavior at the Nanoscale IV: Organized by Christopher Weinberger; Qian Yu; Garritt Tucker; Nan Li; Yu Zou; Jonathan Zimmerman; Scott Mao

Understanding the mechanics of materials in small volumes is of fundamental importance because it simultaneously allows for the exploration of new properties at the smallest of length scales as well as provides a basis for understanding multiscale phenomena that originate at these lengthscales. This symposium will focus on the mechanical properties of small-volume and low-dimensional materials, as well as bulk materials that are comprised of or are aggregates of these materials including bulk nanostructured materials and nanoscale based heirarchical materials. Of particular interest are studies that discuss sample size effects, applications of nanoscale mechanical testing and the associated characterization, as well as modeling that addresses the mechanical properties of these materials. Properties of interest include, but are not limited to: elasticity, strength, plastic flow, fatigue, and fracture with material systems ranging from hard materials, including metals and ceramics, to soft and biological materials. Topics will include: - Size effects on elasticity, strength, plastic flow, fracture and fatigue in low dimensional materials including nanopillars, nanowires, nanoparticles, thin films, multilayered materials, graded materials, and architecture-designed materials. - Changes in deformation types or patterns due to changes in scale including those due to size affected phase transformations, changes in density and types of interfaces, as well as available deformation sources. - Ex-situ and in-situ (SEM, TEM, XRD, neutron, etc.) mechanical characterization methods. - Modeling and simulation at all scales, as well as coupled scale modeling, of mechanical behavior of nanostructured materials - Confinement and size effects in glasses and disordered media. - Small scale mechanics of soft matter: polymers, and biomaterials (e.g collagen, chitin, and keratin, as well as other organic materials).

2018 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition: Ultrafine-grained Materials X: Organized by Suveen Mathaudhu; Irene Beyerlein; Avinash Dongare; Chong Soo Lee; Terry Lowe; Srikanth Patala; Lee Semiatin; Jason Trelewicz; Janelle Wharry; Caizhi Zhou

This is the tenth international symposium that focuses on all aspects of the science and technology of ultrafine grained (UFG) and nanocrystalline materials. This symposium covers a broad scope, ranging from fundamental science to applications of bulk ultrafine-grained (grain size <1000 nm) and nanostructured (feature size <100 nm) materials. It provides a forum on the topics of fabrication and understanding of UFG and nanocrystalline materials including conventional and emerging technologies and advancements, fundamental issues in severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing and SPD-processed materials, UFG and nanocrystalline microstructure evolution, mechanical and physical properties, deformation mechanisms, superplasticity, joining and bonding, computational and analytical modeling, structural and functional applications, etc. Other emerging topics to be covered include gradient and layered nanostructures, vapor-phase processing, powder processing, rapid-solidification methods, bio-inspired nanomaterials, and radiation tolerant nanomaterials. Also, in honor of the 10th iteration of this symposium, we will hold a “Pioneers of Ultrafine Grained Materials” session that will highlight the contributions of the superheroes of this field. Awards: UFG X will be hosting a Young Scientist Session for students or post-docs within three years of receiving their Ph.D. There will be up to two Gold Medals and three Silver Medals for best oral presentation. Awards will also be given for best poster (One Gold Medal and two Silver Medals). A committee that includes the symposium organizers and invited speakers will decide the awards. Each medalist will receive a certificate, and may receive a cash prize, depending on resources available.