BM3: Failure Prediction after Cup Drawing, Reverse Redrawing and Expansion
The aluminum beverage can is a highly engineered, premium product whose evolution continues to meet both consumer demands for sustainable products and the canmaker and beverage brand demands for a highly marketable product. In the year 2019, approximately 350 billion aluminum beverage cans were manufactured worldwide. Lightweighting of these aluminum D&I beverage cans has been a continuous process for more than 50 years. Nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) has become an integral component of the lightweighting process and provides a scientific approach to the design and analysis of thin sheet metal products. However, for simulations to be truly useful in the design process, they must be able to accurately predict both compressive (wrinkling) and tensile (fracture) failures. Manufacturing experience suggests that forming defects during canmaking are influenced by many factors such as mechanical properties of the aluminum sheet, tooling geometry, contact conditions, including the effects of lubrication, and process boundary conditions.
This benchmark evaluates the ability of various fracture models to predict failure under a complex nonlinear strain path. A beverage can cup draw, reverse redraw, and expansion process is used. The main goal is the prediction of the failure stroke and location during the expansion operation after drawing and reverse redrawing. The output of the finite element simulations should include:
- Prediction of earing due to the plastic anisotropy of the material after the initial cup drawing operation and after the reverse redrawing operation
- Prediction of the failure stroke, cup diameter at the location of fracture, and fracture location during the expansion operation
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